Why Nations Fail
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📒Why Nations Fail ✍ Daron Acemoglu
✏Why Nations Fail Book Summary : Brilliant and engagingly written, Why Nations Fail answers the question that has stumped the experts for centuries: Why are some nations rich and others poor, divided by wealth and poverty, health and sickness, food and famine? Is it culture, the weather, geography? Perhaps ignorance of what the right policies are? Simply, no. None of these factors is either definitive or destiny. Otherwise, how to explain why Botswana has become one of the fastest growing countries in the world, while other African nations, such as Zimbabwe, the Congo, and Sierra Leone, are mired in poverty and violence? Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson conclusively show that it is man-made political and economic institutions that underlie economic success (or lack of it). Korea, to take just one of their fascinating examples, is a remarkably homogeneous nation, yet the people of North Korea are among the poorest on earth while their brothers and sisters in South Korea are among the richest. The south forged a society that created incentives, rewarded innovation, and allowed everyone to participate in economic opportunities. The economic success thus spurred was sustained because the government became accountable and responsive to citizens and the great mass of people. Sadly, the people of the north have endured decades of famine, political repression, and very different economic institutions—with no end in sight. The differences between the Koreas is due to the politics that created these completely different institutional trajectories. Based on fifteen years of original research Acemoglu and Robinson marshall extraordinary historical evidence from the Roman Empire, the Mayan city-states, medieval Venice, the Soviet Union, Latin America, England, Europe, the United States, and Africa to build a new theory of political economy with great relevance for the big questions of today, including: - China has built an authoritarian growth machine. Will it continue to grow at such high speed and overwhelm the West? - Are America’s best days behind it? Are we moving from a virtuous circle in which efforts by elites to aggrandize power are resisted to a vicious one that enriches and empowers a small minority? - What is the most effective way to help move billions of people from the rut of poverty to prosperity? More philanthropy from the wealthy nations of the West? Or learning the hard-won lessons of Acemoglu and Robinson’s breakthrough ideas on the interplay between inclusive political and economic institutions? Why Nations Fail will change the way you look at—and understand—the world.
📒How Why Nations Fail ✍ A. I. Abana
✏How Why Nations Fail Book Summary : In a world forged by the shards of history it is not to be expected that countries court the very things that have proven to be the grey cardinals fostering the underdevelopment, backwardness and failures that mark them and others. Time and again these things perpetrate the carnage, tumult and catastrophes that have kept countries chained, making them haemorrhage God given potential, with some managing to attain only a modicum of progress in areas they would have been no less of the global best. These harbingers of failure and backwardness are not restricted to any one country, they are to be found in just about every geographical expression known to mankind as a "nation." They differ only to the degree to which they are pronounced and in the reach within which their effects are palpable. It is my unreserved intent in this volume to disambiguate these agents of national failure down to the metal, to the end that such knowledge may prove useful in whatever noble scope it is needed.
📒Summary Of Why Nations Fail ✍ Instaread
✏Summary of Why Nations Fail Book Summary :
✏Why Nations Fail Key Arguments and Empirical Support of the Theories Book Summary : Essay from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, University of Göttingen, language: English, abstract: “An estimated 766 million people, or 10.7 percent of the world’s population, lived in extreme poverty in 2013.” (World Bank 2017, p. 1) As if these numbers itself weren’t enough sign of the great inequality in incomes after centuries of prosperity, following the World Income Indicators, more than half of the people living under these circumstances originate from one region, Sub-Saharan-Africa. Maybe as long as growth has been observable, controversies about the causes and its inherent erratic distribution flourished. Over time, many hypotheses have been proposed, discussed and rejected. Two of the ones that managed to establish themselves are subject of this essay. More specifically, what their key arguments and empirical support are. One the one hand, the institutional theory of growth promoted most notably by Acemoglu and fellows (2012; 2005). On the other hand the geographic theory of growth, proposed by Sachs et al. (1998; 1999). Plan of the essay is as follows. Chapter II will describe the institutional theory of growth as described in Acemoglu and Robinson (2012). Chapter III assesses the key factors and their empirical support of the institutional and geographic growth hypotheses respectively. Followed by Chapter IV, which gives insight on surrounding literature. Chapter V discusses the main problems of each line of argument, concluding that the institutional model offers more consistency.
📒Why Latin American Nations Fail ✍ Matías Vernengo
✏Why Latin American Nations Fail Book Summary : The question of development is a major topic in courses across the social sciences and history, particularly those focused on Latin America. Many scholars and instructors have tried to pinpoint, explain, and define the problem of underdevelopment in the region. With new ideas have come new strategies that by and large have failed to explain or reduce income disparity and relieve poverty in the region. Why Latin American Nations Fail brings together leading Latin Americanists from several disciplines to address the topic of how and why contemporary development strategies have failed to curb rampant poverty and underdevelopment throughout the region. Given the dramatic political turns in contemporary Latin America, this book offers a much-needed explanation and analysis of the factors that are key to making sense of development today.
📒Why Nations And Economies Can Fail ✍ IntroBooks Team
✏Why Nations and Economies Can Fail Book Summary : The world is currently in a relatively peaceful state with billions of people living under a comfortable roof and feels warm enough during winter nights. Many do not suffer, but it is very possible for all these things to be flipped over in a matter of days. The economy and ‘peaceful’ nations that we see today are not forever. Take Greek, for example, a nation that used to possess the highest level of civilization is now drowning in debt. The extractive economy (a system that relies on harvesting and exporting raw or low-processed materials) that various countries fall into due to lack of means to process raw materials are signs of the danger. It is a vicious cycle that was pointed out by Daron Acemoglu in his book ‘Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty’. And this is only the tip of the iceberg that might surface anytime soon according to the book.
📒Why Nations And Economies Can Fail ✍ Introbooks
✏Why Nations and Economies Can Fail Book Summary : The world is currently in a relatively peaceful state with billions of people living under a comfortable roof and feels warm enough during winter nights. Many do not suffer, but it is very possible for all these things to be flipped over in a matter of days. The economy and 'peaceful' nations that we see today are not forever. Take Greek, for example, a nation that used to possess the highest level of civilization is now drowning in debt.The extractive economy (a system that relies on harvesting and exporting raw or low-processed materials) that various countries fall into due to lack of means to process raw materials are signs of the danger. It is a vicious cycle that was pointed out by Daron Acemoglu in his book 'Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty'. And this is only the tip of the iceberg that might surface anytime soon according to the book.
📒The Narrow Corridor ✍ Daron Acemoglu
✏The Narrow Corridor Book Summary : 'A must-read. Acemoglu and Robinson are intellectual heavyweights of the first rank . . . erudite and fascinating' Paul Collier, Guardian, on Why Nations Fail By the authors of the international bestseller Why Nations Fail, based on decades of research, this powerful new big-picture framework explains how some countries develop towards and provide liberty while others fall to despotism, anarchy or asphyxiating norms- and explains how liberty can thrive despite new threats. Liberty is hardly the 'natural' order of things; usually states have been either too weak to protect individuals or too strong for people to protect themselves from despotism. There is also a happy Western myth that where liberty exists, it's a steady state, arrived at by 'enlightenment'. But liberty emerges only when a delicate and incessant balance is struck between state and society - between elites and citizens. This struggle becomes self-reinforcing, inducing both state and society to develop a richer array of capacities, thus affecting the peacefulness of societies, the success of economies and how people experience their daily lives. Explaining this new framework through compelling stories from around the world, in history and from today - and through a single diagram on which the development of any state can be plotted - this masterpiece helps us understand the past and present, and analyse the future. 'An intellectually rich book that develops an important thesis with verve' Martin Wolf, Financial Times, on Why Nations Fail
📒Rwanda Inc How A Devastated Nation Became An Economic Model For The Developing World ✍ Patricia Crisafulli
✏Rwanda Inc How a Devastated Nation Became an Economic Model for the Developing World Book Summary : Eighteen years after the genocide that made Rwanda international news, but left it all but abandoned by the West, the country has achieved a miraculous turnaround. Rising out of the complete devastation of a failed state, Rwanda has emerged on the world stage yet again-this time with a unique model for governance and economic development under the leadership of its strong and decisive president, Paul Kagame. Here, Patricia Crisafulli & Andrea Redmond look at Kagame's leadership, his drive for excellence and execution that draws comparisons to an American CEO and emphasizes the development of a sophisticated and competitive workforce that leverages human capital. In Rwanda, the ultimate turnaround, strong and effective leadership has made a measurable and meaningful difference. Rwanda's progress offers an example for other developing nations to lift themselves out of poverty without heavy reliance on foreign aid through decentralization, accountability, self-determination, and self-sufficiency. The authors also explore Rwanda's journey toward its goal of becoming a middle-income nation with a technology-based economy, and its progress to encourage private sector development and foster entrepreneurship, while also making gains in education, healthcare, and food security-and all with a strong underpinning of reconciliation and unification. As so many nations stand on the brink of political and economic revolution, this is a timely and fascinating look at the implications of Rwanda's success for the rest of the continent-and the world.
📒Working With The Grain ✍ Brian Levy
✏Working with the Grain Book Summary : The development discourse has long been dominated by best practices prescriptions for reform, but these are not a useful way of responding to the governance ambiguities of the early 21st century. Working with the Grain draws on both innovative scholarship and Brian Levy's quarter century of experience at the World Bank to lay out an alternative-a practical, analytically grounded, "with-the-grain" approach to reducing poverty and addressing weaknesses in governance. Best practice prescriptions confuse the goals of development with the journey of getting from here to there. A strong rule of law, capable and accountable governments, and a flexible, level playing field business environment are indeed desirable end points. But the ability to describe well-governed states does not conjure them into existence. If the only available actions are all or nothing, then efforts at change will almost certainly fall short, leading to disillusion and despair. By contrast, this book takes as its point of departure the realities of a country's economy, polity and society, and directs attention towards the challenges of initiating and sustaining forward development momentum. The book: -- distinguishes among four broad groups of countries, according to whether polities are dominant or competitive, and whether institutions are personalized or impersonal -- identifies alternative options for governance and policy reform-top down options which endeavor to strengthen formal institutions, and options supporting the emergence of "islands of effectiveness" -- explores how to identify entry points for change where there is a good fit between divergent country contexts and alternative options for reform. Sometimes the binding constraint to forward movement can be institutional, making governance reform the priority; at other times, the priority can better be on inclusive growth. Taking the decade-or-so time horizon of practitioners, the aim is to nudge things along-seeking gains that initially may seem quite modest but sometimes can give rise to a cascading sequence of change for the better.