Ultrasonic Transducers

Ultrasonic Transducer Materials Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ultrasonic Transducer Materials
✏Author : O. E. Mattiat
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-03-13
✏Pages : 185
✏ISBN : 9781475704686
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ultrasonic Transducer Materials Book Summary : In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the development of materials for ultrasonic transducers. There is a continuing trend towards increasingly higher frequency ranges for the application of ultrasonic trans ducers in modern technology. The progress in this area has been especially rapid and articles and papers on the subject are scattered over numerous technical and scientific journals in this country and abroad. Although good books have appeared on ultrasonics in general and ultrasonic transducers in particular in which, for obvious reasons, materials play an important part, no comprehensive treatise is available that represents the state-of-the-art on modern ultrasonic transducer materials. This book intends to fill a need for a thorough review of the subject. Not all materials are covered of which, theoretically, ultrasonic trans ducers could be made but those that are or may be of technical impor tance and which have inherent electro acoustic transducer properties, i.e., materials that are either magnetostrictive, electrostrictive, or piezoelectric. The book has been devided into three parts which somewhat reflect the historic development of ultrasonic transducer materials for important tech nical application. Chapter 1 deals with magnetostrictive materials, magnetostrictive met als and their alloys, and magnetostrictive ferrites (polycrystalline ceramics). The metals are useful especially in cases where ruggednes of the transducers are of overriding importance and in the lower ultrasonic frequency range.

📒Ultrasonic Transducers ✍ K Nakamura

Ultrasonic Transducers Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ultrasonic Transducers
✏Author : K Nakamura
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2012-08-23
✏Pages : 722
✏ISBN : 9780857096302
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ultrasonic Transducers Book Summary : Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. Ultrasonic transducers reviews recent research in the design and application of this important technology. Part one provides an overview of materials and design of ultrasonic transducers. Piezoelectricity and basic configurations are explored in depth, along with electromagnetic acoustic transducers, and the use of ceramics, thin film and single crystals in ultrasonic transducers. Part two goes on to investigate modelling and characterisation, with performance modelling, electrical evaluation, laser Doppler vibrometry and optical visualisation all considered in detail. Applications of ultrasonic transducers are the focus of part three, beginning with a review of surface acoustic wave devices and air-borne ultrasound transducers, and going on to consider ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems, power, biomedical and micro-scale ultrasonics, therapeutic ultrasound devices, piezoelectric and fibre optic hydrophones, and ultrasonic motors are also described. With its distinguished editor and expert team of international contributors,Ultrasonic transducers is an authoritative review of key developments for engineers and materials scientists involved in this area of technology as well as in its applications in sectors as diverse as electronics, wireless communication and medical diagnostics. Reviews recent research in the design and application of ultrasonic transducers Provides an overview of the materials and design of ultrasonic transducers, with an in-depth exploration of piezoelectricity and basic configurations Investigates modelling and characterisation, applications of ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems

New Developments In Ultrasonic Transducers And Transducer Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : New Developments in Ultrasonic Transducers and Transducer Systems
✏Author : Frederic L. Lizzi
✏Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
✏Release Date : 1992
✏Pages : 331
✏ISBN : UOM:39015029458208
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏New Developments in Ultrasonic Transducers and Transducer Systems Book Summary :

📒Ultrasonic Transducers ✍ Yoshimitsu Kikuchi

Ultrasonic Transducers Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ultrasonic Transducers
✏Author : Yoshimitsu Kikuchi
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1969
✏Pages : 407
✏ISBN : UOM:39015006064839
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ultrasonic Transducers Book Summary :

Power Sonic And Ultrasonic Transducers Design Book PDF
✏Book Title : Power Sonic and Ultrasonic Transducers Design
✏Author : Bernard Hamonic
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2012-12-06
✏Pages : 249
✏ISBN : 9783642732638
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Power Sonic and Ultrasonic Transducers Design Book Summary : This volume contains the Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Design of Power Sonic and Ultrasonic Transducers, which was held in the Maison de l'Entreprise et des Technologies Nouvelles, Marcq en Baroeul, near Lille, France, on May 26 and 27, 1987. The main objective of this Workshop was to discuss all aspects of high power problems in the design of electroacoustic transducers and to stimulate an exchange of knowledge and experience between researchers and industrial ists involved in this multidisciplinary field. The scientific program included 13 invited contributions, and there were 80 participants from England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United States. The editors wish to thank the authors and attendees for their active par ticipation, and they hope that these Proceedings will allow readers to share in the stimulating atmosphere of the sessions. They also wish to thank eve ryone who undertook simultaneous translation, clerical work, typing of the Proceedings, production of the illustrations, or any other of the numerous tasks connected with this venture. Special mention has to be made of Mrs. E. Litton (ISEN, Lille) for her constant and kind help from the beginning of the project to the very end of the editing, Dr. R. Bossut (ISEN, Lille) for his efficient proofreading, and Dr. H.U. Daniel (Springer-Verlag) for his interest in these Proceedings as well as his kind and efficient support.

📒Design Of Efficient Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers ✍ Stanford University Ginzton Laboratory

Design Of Efficient Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers Book PDF
✏Book Title : Design of Efficient Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers
✏Author : Stanford University Ginzton Laboratory
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1979
✏Pages : 176
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105046334210
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Design of Efficient Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers Book Summary :

Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2015
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1066390249
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results Book Summary : Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 102̂1 n/cm2̂. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric transducer and two magnetostrictive transducers have demonstrated reliable operation under irradiation. The irradiation is ongoing.

The Measurement Of Ultrasonic Transducer Characteristics Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Measurement of Ultrasonic Transducer Characteristics
✏Author : M. F. Zeutschel
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1964
✏Pages : 35
✏ISBN : UOM:39015077301904
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Measurement of Ultrasonic Transducer Characteristics Book Summary :

Interface Engineering Of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers For Medical Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Interface Engineering of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for Medical Applications
✏Author :
✏Publisher : Stanford University
✏Release Date : 2011
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : STANFORD:xk708cv9822
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Interface Engineering of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for Medical Applications Book Summary : Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), have been widely studied in academia and industry over the last decade. CMUTs provide many benefits over traditional piezoelectric transducers including improvement in performance through wide bandwidth, and ease of electronics integration, with the potential to batch fabricate very large 2D arrays with low-cost and high-yield. Though many aspects of CMUT technology have been studied over the years, packaging the CMUT into a fully practical system has not been thoroughly explored. Two important interfaces of packaging that this thesis explores are device encapsulation (the interface between CMUTs and patients) and full electronic integration of large scale 2D arrays (the interface between CMUTs and electronics). In the first part of the work, I investigate the requirements for the CMUT encapsulation. For medical usage, encapsulation is needed to electrically insulate the device, mechanically protect the device, and maintain transducer performance, especially the access of the ultrasound energy. While hermetic sealing can protect many other MEMS devices, CMUTs require mechanical interaction to a fluid, which makes fulfilling the previous criterion very challenging. The proposed solution is to use a viscoelastic material with the glass-transition-temperature lower than room temperature, such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), to preserve the CMUT static and dynamic performance. Experimental implementation of the encapsulated imaging CMUT arrays shows the device performance was maintained; 95 % of efficiency, 85% of the maximum output pressure, and 91% of the fractional bandwidth (FBW) can be preserved. A viscoelastic finite element model was also developed and shows the performance effects of the coating can be accurately predicted. Four designs, providing acoustic crosstalk suppression, flexible substrate, lens focusing, and blood flow monitoring using PDMS layer were also demonstrated. The second part of the work, presents contributions towards the electronic integration and packaging of large-area 2-D arrays. A very large 2D array is appealing for it can enable advanced novel imaging applications, such as a reconfigurable array, and a compression plate for breast cancer screening. With these goals in mind, I developed the first large-scale fully populated and integrated 2D CMUTs array with 32 by 192 elements. In this study, I demonstrate a flexible and reliable integration approach by successfully combining a simple UBM preparation technique and a CMUTs-interposer-ASICs sandwich design. The results show high shear strength of the UBM (26.5 g), 100% yield of the interconnections, and excellent CMUT resonance uniformity (σ = 0.02 MHz). As demonstrated, this allows for a large-scale assembly of a tile-able array by using an interposer. Interface engineering is crucial towards the development of CMUTs into a practical ultrasound system. With the advances in encapsulation technique with a viscoelastic polymer and the combination of the UBM technique to the TSV fabrication for electronics integration, a fully integrated CMUT system can be realized.

Practical Ultrasonic Transducers For High Temperature Applications Using Bismuth Titanate And Ceramabind 830 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Practical Ultrasonic Transducers for High Temperature Applications Using Bismuth Titanate and Ceramabind 830
✏Author : Janet Xu
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1021227753
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Practical Ultrasonic Transducers for High Temperature Applications Using Bismuth Titanate and Ceramabind 830 Book Summary : Non-destructive testing (NDT) using ultrasonic transducers can help detect and prevent largescalefailures in high-temperature environments (>150 degC) such as power plants by using noninvasivetechniques to determine the structural integrity of pipework. Practical piezoceramicultrasonic transducers made using only bismuth titanate (BIT), a binding solution called Ceramabind830, and a bit of water have been shown to withstand temperatures up to 330 degC and arepainted directly onto the substrate, allowing for in-situ, real-time monitoring of high-temperaturecomponents.When fabricating these BIT/Ceramabind 830 transducers, it was found that the performancevaried significantly when made with the same materials and procedures. Investigations weremade to identify the effects of humidity during the drying process, binder concentration, waterconcentration, and deposition amount to optimize performance and reduce variation betweentransducers. The best samples were made in low humidity environments with a low binderconcentration, water concentration dependent on substrate roughness, and by depositing as thinof a layer of film as possible.In addition, an optimal poling temperature of 200 degC was determined, high-temperaturetests were performed, laser cutting was shown to be a good method for creating transducerelements, and three signal processing techniques were demonstrated to significantly increasesignal-to-noise ratio.

Calculations For Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers Book PDF
✏Book Title : Calculations for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers
✏Author : Henrik Jensen
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1986
✏Pages : 97
✏ISBN : 8755011985
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Calculations for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers Book Summary :

Medical Imaging  Book PDF
✏Book Title : Medical Imaging
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1999
✏Pages : 214
✏ISBN : UOM:39015047392264
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Medical Imaging Book Summary :

The Design And Fabrication Of Ultrasonic Transducers And Transducer Arrays Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Design and Fabrication of Ultrasonic Transducers and Transducer Arrays
✏Author : Alan Robert Selfridge
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1982
✏Pages : 183
✏ISBN : OCLC:38606059
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Design and Fabrication of Ultrasonic Transducers and Transducer Arrays Book Summary :

Beam Steering Of Electrically Segmented Piezo Ceramic Ultrasonic Transducers Using Normal Mode Coupling Book PDF
✏Book Title : Beam Steering of Electrically Segmented Piezo ceramic Ultrasonic Transducers Using Normal Mode Coupling
✏Author : Hossein Eslambolchi
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1984
✏Pages : 344
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822001897701
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Beam Steering of Electrically Segmented Piezo ceramic Ultrasonic Transducers Using Normal Mode Coupling Book Summary : It is well known that normal mode coupling in large diameter piezoelectric plates causes serious difficulties when attempting to operate over wide frequency bands. As a consequence transducers are commonly constructed as a mosaic of elemental resonators, each of which has a predominant single mode of mechinial oscillation at the frequency of interest. Such transducer arrays may be electrically steered to angles other than normal by applying different phases of driving voltages to different elements. Keywords include: Mode coupling, Piezoelectric plates, and Dispersion curve.

Use Of Phase Locked Loop Control For Driving Ultrasonic Transducers Book PDF
✏Book Title : Use of Phase locked loop Control for Driving Ultrasonic Transducers
✏Author : L. Jack Smith
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1966
✏Pages : 8
✏ISBN : UIUC:30112106686758
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Use of Phase locked loop Control for Driving Ultrasonic Transducers Book Summary :

Ultrasonic Transducers For Nondestructive Testing  Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ultrasonic Transducers for Nondestructive Testing
✏Author : Maurice G. Silk
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 1984-01-01
✏Pages : 176
✏ISBN : 0852744366
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ultrasonic Transducers for Nondestructive Testing Book Summary :

Experimental Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers Using Pvf2 Piezoelectric Film Book PDF
✏Book Title : Experimental Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers Using PVF2 Piezoelectric Film
✏Author : Stanford University. Ginzton Laboratory
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1976
✏Pages : 9
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105046332792
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Experimental Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers Using PVF2 Piezoelectric Film Book Summary : Broadband ultrasonic transducers using PVF2 piezoelectric plastics films, combining efficient transduction with extremely wide and uniform passbands, have been fabricated using very simple procedures without any critical tolerances. Frequency spectra of impulsed transducers using films of 25 and 50 micron thickness, centered at 10 and 5 MHz, respectively, are shown.

Integrated Circuit Compatible Electric And Condenser Ultrasonic Transducers Book PDF
✏Book Title : Integrated circuit compatible Electric and Condenser Ultrasonic Transducers
✏Author : Jonathan Jay Bernstein
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1983
✏Pages : 266
✏ISBN : UCAL:C2935036
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Integrated circuit compatible Electric and Condenser Ultrasonic Transducers Book Summary :

Novel Ultrasonic Transducers And Array Designs Using Self Similar Fractal Geometries Book PDF
✏Book Title : Novel Ultrasonic Transducers and Array Designs Using Self similar Fractal Geometries
✏Author : Haoyu Fang
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1120178698
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Novel Ultrasonic Transducers and Array Designs Using Self similar Fractal Geometries Book Summary :

Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducers And Imaging Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducers and Imaging Systems
✏Author : Pentti Mattila
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1996
✏Pages : 79
✏ISBN : 951384921X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducers and Imaging Systems Book Summary : Ultrasonic distance measurement; Ultrasonic transducer groups and arrays; Modelling of capacitive ultrasonic transducers; Lepakko transducer array; Image processing.

Design Of Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers And Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Design of Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers and Systems
✏Author : Sivaram Nishal Ramadas
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2017-06-15
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 1498715044
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Design of Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers and Systems Book Summary : Successful and cost-effective design of an ultrasonic sensor can be problematic. As technological requirements have advanced, sensor complexity has increased dramatically, making intuitive design very difficult. Consequently, new improved models, capable of predicting the device characteristics, are vital for designing complex ultrasonic sensors/systems and keeping pace with the increasingly stringent technological requirements of the future. This book explains how to use a signal processing approach to build effective analytical methods that enable modeling of ultrasonic transduction systems.

Improvement Of Ultrasonic Transducers By Using A Multilayer Front Face Book PDF
✏Book Title : Improvement of Ultrasonic Transducers by Using a Multilayer Front Face
✏Author : Jean-Fran?cois de Belleval
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1978
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1109689657
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Improvement of Ultrasonic Transducers by Using a Multilayer Front Face Book Summary :

Air Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers For Industrial Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Air Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers for Industrial Applications
✏Author : Alexander Unger
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1137041710
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Air Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers for Industrial Applications Book Summary :

Piezoelectric Transducers And Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Piezoelectric Transducers and Applications
✏Author : Antonio Arnau Vives
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2008-10-10
✏Pages : 532
✏ISBN : 9783540775089
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Piezoelectric Transducers and Applications Book Summary : This updated guide to the current state-of-the-art of this complex and multidisciplinary area fills an urgent need for a unified source of information on piezoelectric devices and their astounding variety of existing and emerging applications. New understandings underlying the principles of Piezoelectric Transducers, new technological advances in its applications, and new areas of utility for these transducers made a second edition of this book inevitable.

Closed Loop Finite Element Design Of Array Ultrasonic Transducers For High Frequency Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Closed loop Finite Element Design of Array Ultrasonic Transducers for High Frequency Applications
✏Author : Jeong Nyeon Kim
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1117335980
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Closed loop Finite Element Design of Array Ultrasonic Transducers for High Frequency Applications Book Summary : Since Paul Langevins discovery of active sonar in 1917, ultrasound transducers have evolved in multiple forms that include single element, single element on a wedge, single element with cylindrical lens, single element with spherical lens, linear arrays, annular arrays, two- dimensional (2D) arrays, and phased arrays, among others. They have been applied in sound navigation and ranging (SONAR), structural health monitoring (SHM), nondestructive testing (NDT), nondestructive evaluation (NDE), medical/biomedical sensing/imaging, and biometric sensing/imaging. This dissertation focuses on the development of high frequency phased array transducers for two specific applications scanning acoustic microscopy, and biometric imaging for small electronics. Closed-loop finite element studies were conducted in three dimensions using PZFlex, a commercial finite-element method software. A 5 MHz, thickness-mode, linear array for an acoustic microscope, and a flexible 10 MHz, bending-mode, piezoelectric, micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) 2D array, plus a flexible 38 MHz bending-mode, PMUT 2D array for finger-print and finger-vein imaging, were virtually prototyped and their respective performances were predicted. The scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) has been a well-recognized tool for both visualization and quantitative evaluation of materials at the microscale, since its invention in 1974. While there have been multiple advances in SAM over the past four decades, some issues still remain to be addressed. First, the measurement speed is limited by the mechanical movement of the acoustic lens. Second, a single element transducer acoustic lens only delivers a predetermined beam pattern for a fixed focal length and incident angle, thereby limiting control of the inspection beam. Here, a development of a phased array probe as an alternative is proposed to overcome these issues. Preliminary studies to design a practical, high frequency, phased array, acoustic microscope probe were explored. A linear phased array, comprising 32 elements and operating at 5 MHz, was modeled using PZFlex. This phased array system was characterized in terms of electrical input impedance response, pulse-echo and impulse response, surface displacement profiles, mode shapes, and beam profiles.PMUT using lead-zirconate-titanate, PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT), thin films are currently being investigated for miniaturized, high frequency, ultrasound systems, and their microfabrication processes explored. For example, Liu et al. developed a process to remove the PZT from an underlying rigid Si substrate, creating the potential for developing curved arrays [138, 139]. This dissertation aims to improve the design of flexible PMUT arrays by developing 3D models using PZFlex. A 10 MHz 2D array PMUT device, working in 3-1 bending mode, was designed. A circular unit-cell was structured from the top, comprising a platinum (Pt) electrode, a PZT active layer, a bottom Pt electrode and a titanium (Ti) passive layer, all placed concentrically on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The active PZT layer had a diameter of 46 m and a thickness of 1 m. The passive Ti layer was 59.8 m diameter and 1 m in thickness. The PI substrate was 20 m thick. Below the passive Ti layer, another 7 m thick PI passive layer and 13 m deep cavity with 46 m diameter was added concentric to the PZT layer. The dimensions were selected to have a resonance frequency at 10 MHz under water load and air backing. The pulse-echo and spectral response analysis of the unit-cell predicted its bandwidth to be 87%. Mode shapes of the unit-cell were modeled to discover undesirable cross coupling to higher modes. A 2D array, consisting of 256 (1616) unit-cells, was created and characterized in terms of pulse-echo response, spectral response, surface displacement profile, cross-talk, and beam profiles.Iterations to find a robust design of the flexible PMUT array with increased resonance frequency and low operating voltage were continued. A PMUT array has to be operated at very low voltage to be embedded and run in small electronic devices, such as smart-phones, and smart-watches. A 38 MHz, flexible, PMUT array operating at 3 Volt peak-to-peak (Vpp) driving voltage was designed. To achieve these goals, a unit-cell, consisting of four 3-1 bending mode diaphragms, were devised. The quad diaphragm unit-cell was structured with 40 m 40 m 500 nm PZT layer on top of 40 m 40 m 1 m Ti elastic layer which had four (22)10 m 10 m 5 m cavities beneath it. The cavities had 11 m of interspacing to next cavities. Four pairs of 10 m 10 m top and bottom Pt electrodes were placed concentrically with the cavities by sandwiching the PZT layer. The top and bottom Pt electrodes had thicknesses of 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively. A PI substrate was placed beneath the Ti layer, surrounding the cavities, with 8 m thick, including the 5 m deep cavities. The pulse-echo and spectral response analysis of the quad diaphragm unit-cell revealed its bandwidth to be 32.2 %. A 2D array was constructed with 1616 unit-cells, consisting of 1024 (3232) diaphragms. This array was evaluated in terms of pulse-echo response, spectral response, surface displacement profile, cross-talk, and beam profiles.

Gesture Sensing With Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers Book PDF
✏Book Title : Gesture Sensing with Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers
✏Author : Julia Claire Canning
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages : 157
✏ISBN : OCLC:1117714622
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Gesture Sensing with Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers Book Summary : As everyday devices become increasingly interactive, there is a need for improved interface sensors between humans and machines, as well as for expansion of the form factors and materials through which such sensors can operate. This thesis explores sensing technologies to enable user input on a consumer electronics device, specifically technologies that are capable of sensing touch and hover gestures through a metal substrate. Electromagnetic, optical, and acoustic technologies are explored. Capacitive and pinhole camera approaches for sensing through a mostly metal substrate are presented briefly. The bulk of the thesis focuses on the development of an array of flexural ultrasonic transducers to allow sensing through a fully metal substrate. An analytical model, finite element simulations, and experiments are presented to characterize and optimize the transducers, and a prototype is developed as a proof of concept of the combined touch and hover sensor system. The prototype successfully demonstrates the capability of a mesoscale piezo unimorph array to detect and distinguish between tap, touch, and swipe contact gestures and to detect a hovering object, albeit in a limited range, above a metal substrate. There are opportunities for improvements in circuitry, sensor design, and fabrication that could lead to finer resolution, decreased sensor size, and a larger range for hover detection.

Multilayer Pb Zr Ti O3 Thin Films For Ultrasonic Transducer Book PDF
✏Book Title : Multilayer Pb Zr Ti O3 Thin Films for Ultrasonic Transducer
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051348011
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Multilayer Pb Zr Ti O3 Thin Films for Ultrasonic Transducer Book Summary : In this study, we have fabricated membranes which are composed of two‐ and four‐layer Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films with internal electrodes by using sputtering depositions. Electrical and driving characteristics as ultrasonic transducers of these membranes are evaluated. By increasing number of layers, the static displacement is reduced. However, for the multilayered membrane, the dynamic displacement became large because of the large mechanical Q factor in resonant vibration. The emitted sound pressure level and characteristics of the ultrasonic transducer are estimated.

Multifrequency Ultrasonic Transducers With Spatially Distributed Stop Band Material Book PDF
✏Book Title : Multifrequency Ultrasonic Transducers with Spatially Distributed Stop Band Material
✏Author : Johannes Henneberg
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1199755894
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Multifrequency Ultrasonic Transducers with Spatially Distributed Stop Band Material Book Summary :

Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Cmuts For Humidity Sensing Book PDF
✏Book Title : Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers CMUTs for Humidity Sensing
✏Author : Zhou Zheng
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages : 132
✏ISBN : OCLC:1122759583
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers CMUTs for Humidity Sensing Book Summary : In the last two decades, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have proven themselves to be promising for various ultrasound imaging and chemical sensing applications. Although holding many benefits for ultrasound imaging, CMUTs have certain weaknesses such as the relatively low output pressure at transmission, which hinder their development in the diagnostic imaging application. In the sensing area, CMUTs have shown attractive features such as high mass sensitivity, miniaturized array configuration, and ease of functionalization. However, their potential for humidity sensing is less explored. The objectives of this thesis lie in two aspects. One is to offer a solution to overcome the limitation of low output pressure, and the other is to develop CMUTs as resonant gravimetric humidity sensors. The major efforts are made on the second task. For the first objective, a novel dual-element ultrasonic transducer is proposed. It incorporates two transducer technologies by using a circular piezoelectric element for ultrasound transmission and an annular CMUT element for reception. The hybrid transducer combines the broad bandwidth and high receive sensitivity of the CMUT and the high output power of the piezoelectric transducer to improve the overall sensitivity and axial resolution. The annular CMUT is designed, fabricated, and concentrically aligned with the piezoelectric probe via a custom housing. Immersion measurements show that the hybrid dual-element transducer improves the axial resolution by 25.58% and the signal-to-noise ratio by 8.55 dB over the commercial piezoelectric probe. For the second objective, a CMUT-based resonant humidity sensor is first developed with the direct wafer bonding technique. Graphene oxide (GO) is employed as the sensing material. Due to combination of the mass-sensitive CMUT and the moisture-sensitive GO, the sensor exhibits rapid response/recovery, good repeatability, and higher sensitivity than most of its competitors. The second generation of CMUT-based humidity sensors aims to further improve the relative humidity (RH) sensing performance by adopting the nitride-to-oxide wafer bonding technology for CMUT fabrication. In contrast to conventional wafer bonding CMUT processes that use expensive silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers to produce resonating membranes, the new process employs low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride as the membrane material. It provides thinner and lighter membranes, and thus more sensitive CMUT resonators. Additional benefits of the nitride-to-oxide wafer bonding technique are the reduced fabrication complexity and more controllable membrane thickness. Finally, a dual-frequency (10/14 MHz) CMUT is developed using this fabrication technique. It generates two RH response curves and can provide more accurate RH sensing. Due to the independence of the two resonance frequencies, the dual-frequency CMUT also shows great potential for identification of different chemicals. This thesis demonstrates that CMUT sensors can be strong candidates for miniaturized, highly sensitive, and reliable humidity sensors.

Structural Dynamics Of Ultrasonic Transducers Simulation And Experiment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Structural Dynamics of Ultrasonic Transducers Simulation and Experiment
✏Author : Johannes Henneberg
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2020
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1164172635
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Structural Dynamics of Ultrasonic Transducers Simulation and Experiment Book Summary :