They Came Before Columbus Pdf
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📒Egypt Revisited ✍ Ivan Van Sertima
✏Egypt Revisited Book Summary : This volume represents a new departure in the examination of Egypt's place in the African context. It brings together the latest research of the 1980s on Nile Valley civilizations, what they achieved, and their impact on Africa and the world. The authors take an "Afrocentric" in contrast to a "Eurocentric" perspective in their studies of the birthplace of civilization. This volume includes sections on the race and origin of the ancient Egyptians, black dynasties and rulers, Egyptian science and philosophy, and great Egyptologists. It sheds new light on neglected aspects of history. Ivan Van Sertima is professor of African studies, Rutgers University, and editor of the Journal of African Civilizations. He is the author of They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America, winner of the Clarence L. Holte International Prize.
✏Encyclopedia of Social Work Book Summary :
📒Counseling African American Males ✍ Dr. William Ross
✏Counseling African American Males Book Summary : There is no one method for doing culturally alert counseling. Instead, culturally alert counseling consists of intentionally adapting existing ways to help clients (1) understand their socially constructed worldviews through culture, (2) appreciate their various cultures, (3) to make choices about adherence to cultural norms, and (4) to recognize and respond to external bias relating to their cultural group membership.
✏Historical and Contemporary Pan Africanism and the Quest for African Renaissance Book Summary : This volume explores what it means to be an African in a political context in which such people are called upon to re-assert the value of identifying as African in order to counter the effects of neo-colonialism. This includes affirming visions of what Africanness can offer in terms of people’s being-in-the-world. The book also discusses the benefits associated with working together as people of African ancestry, as well as the evocation of Ubuntu. It focuses on the possibility of revisiting the urge for African rebirth, and shows how the idea of Pan-Africanism helps to keep this dream alive. It engages with a range of ideas that build on the Pan-African philosophy for grounding African cultural and political rebirth, and will contribute to debunking the mindset that prompts many African youths and adults to risk it all for an apparently better life on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.
📒Rethinking Prison Reentry ✍ Tony Gaskew
✏Rethinking Prison Reentry Book Summary : Gaskew presents a prison-based education designed to address a prevalent racial politics of shaming, self-segregation, and transgenerational learned-helplessness. He explores the Black counter-culture of crime and tasks incarcerated Black men to draw upon the strength of their cultural privilege to transform from criminal offender into student.
📒Race And Crime ✍ Shaun L. Gabbidon
✏Race and Crime Book Summary : Written by two of the most prominent criminologists in the field, Race and Crime, Fourth Edition examines how racial and ethnic groups intersect with the U.S. criminal justice system. Award winning authors Shaun L. Gabbidon and Helen Taylor Greene provide students with the latest data and research on White, Black, Hispanic/Latino, Asian-American, and Native American intersections with the criminal justice system. Rich with several timely topics such as biosocial theory, violent victimizations, police bias, and immigration policing, the Fourth Edition continues to investigate modern-day issues relevant to understanding race/ethnicity and crime in the United States. A thought-provoking discussion of contemporary issues is uniquely balanced with an historical context to offer students a panoramic perspective on race and crime. Accessible and reader friendly, this comprehensive text shows students how race and ethnicity have mattered and continue to matter in the administration of justice.
📒1491 ✍ Charles C. Mann
✏1491 Book Summary : Describes how recent archaeological research has transformed long-held myths about the Americas, revealing far older and more advanced cultures with a greater population than were previously thought to have existed.
📒The American Discovery Of Europe ✍ Jack D. Forbes
✏The American Discovery of Europe Book Summary : This book is investigates the voyages of Americas Native peoples to the European continent before Columbuss 1492 arrival in the 2New World. 3 The product of over twenty years of exhaustive research in libraries throughout Europe and the United States, Jack D. Forbes employs a vast number of primary and secondary sources to paint a clear picture of the diverse and complex societies that comprised the Americas before 1492 and reveals the surprising Native American involvements in maritime trade and exploration. Starting with an encounter by Columbus himself with mysterious people who had apparently been carried across the Atlantic on favorable currents, Forbes proceeds to a detailed discussion of ocean currents and then to exploring the seagoing expertise of early Americans in the Caribbean, on the coasts of Greenland, and beyond. He also discusses theories of ancient migrations, the evidence for human origins in the Americas, and other early visitors coming from Europe to America, including the Norse. The book closes with a discussion of Native travelers to Europe after 1493, when they came mostly as slaves. The provocative, extensively documented, and heartfelt conclusions of The American Discovery of Europe present an open challenge to received historical wisdom. This book will be of lasting importance to Native people and redefine the way future scholarship views American history. - Publisher.
📒Fair Gods And Feathered Serpents ✍ Terry J. O'Brien
✏Fair Gods and Feathered Serpents Book Summary : Everywhere they went in the New World, missionaries, trappers, colonizers and conquistadores encountered strange stories of bearded, white visitor who came in ancient times-long before Columbus-and brought a higher civilization with him. So remarkable was this visitor and his advanced civilization that natives built huge monuments and great structures in his honor, and many worshiped him as a God. His symbol, the feathered serpent, appeared in ceremonies, paintings, carvings and architecture which can still be seen at various site throughout the Americas. Carefully researched and documented but writeen for the layman as well as the scholar, this exciting book will lead readers along the fascinating path of discovery, insight and deduction as it attempts to slove the most baffling riddle ever produced by the ancient Americas-the identity of its mysterious beareded white visitor.
📒The Mystic Symbol ✍ Henriette Mertz
✏The Mystic Symbol Book Summary : An expanded edition of the original classic, long out-of-print, The Mystic Symbol describes thousands of Christian, inscribed tablets, unearthed across Michigan. The Michigan Mound Builders left behind 10,000 to 30,000 artifacts as a testament to their presence in North America. Mound burials have yielded evidence of a culture with Eastern Hemisphere influence in their spiritual and everyday life. Controversy has engulfed this find of artifacts mainly because they were here before Columbus of 1492 which is unacceptable to our academics today. Nevertheless, the Michigan artifacts continue to surface even today in the state of Michigan. This is fascinating look into North Americas diverse history. Henriette Mertz has championed the cause for authenticity of these numerous and unusual tablets, tools and weapons of this mysterious people. Who they are and when they came is theorized by Mertz with a companion addendum of the current supporters to her original work.