The Racial Contract
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📒The Racial Contract ✍ Charles W. Mills
✏The Racial Contract Book Summary : Argues that racially structured discrimination is the norm by using social contract theory
📒Rhetoric And Race Traitors ✍ Olivia Nicole Gilbert
✏Rhetoric and race Traitors Book Summary : This thesis examines political philosopher Charles Mills' The Racial Contract (1997) within the context of the Afro-modern tradition of political thought. By reading The Racial Contract (hereafter TRC) as part of this tradition, I draw attention to aspects of the text that have been overlooked in the scholarly literature, namely the role of rhetoric in accomplishing the goals of the text. Specifically, TRC calls for white people to become "race traitors," meaning those who reject their racial privilege and actively work to dismantle systems of white supremacy. I highlight the ways in which the rhetoric of TRC works to incite a subjective transformation in white readers, working on both cognitive and affective dimensions to re-orient their relationship to the world and those around them. The transformation of white readers hinges crucially on the epistemological insight of nonwhite people. In addition to the larger context of Afro-modern political thought, I show how TRC draws on rhetorical strategies from three other genres within modern political thought--manifestoes, French structuralism, and contract theory--and orients them toward the questions of white supremacy and racial domination. Ultimately, I argue that the role of rhetoric in TRC affords a distinct approach to the problem of white supremacy in the contemporary moment, a moment marked by forms of colorblind racism that often make white supremacy invisible to those who benefit from it most. TRC shows how rhetoric plays a role in the political, subjective, and epistemological transformations required if white people are to make a contribution to achieving racial justice.
📒The Contract And Domination ✍ Carole Pateman
✏The Contract and Domination Book Summary : Contract and Domination offers a bold challenge to contemporary contract theory, arguing that it should either be fundamentally rethought or abandoned altogether. Since the publication of John Rawls's A Theory of Justice, contract theory has once again become central to the Western political tradition. But gender justice is neglected and racial justice almost completely ignored. Carole Pateman and Charles Mills's earlier books, The Sexual Contract (1988) and The Racial Contract (1997), offered devastating critiques of gender and racial domination and the contemporary contract tradition's silence on them. Both books have become classics of revisionist radical democratic political theory. Now Pateman and Mills are collaborating for the first time in an interdisciplinary volume, drawing on their insights from political science and philosophy. They are building on but going beyond their earlier work to bring the sexual and racial contracts together. In Contract and Domination, Pateman and Mills discuss their differences about contract theory and whether it has a useful future, excavate the (white) settler contract that created new civil societies in North America and Australia, argue via a non-ideal contract for reparations to black Americans, confront the evasions of contemporary contract theorists, explore the intersections of gender and race and the global sexual-racial contract, and reply to their critics. This iconoclastic book throws the gauntlet down to mainstream white male contract theory. It is vital reading for anyone with an interest in political theory and political philosophy, and the systems of male and racial domination.
📒The American Untouchables America The Racial Contract ✍ Andre Smith
✏The American Untouchables America the Racial Contract Book Summary : The issue of race is often a scab Americans choose to ignore. However social science has a responsibility and an obligation to examine not simply the amenable subjects but also the controversial. This work, in a word, is controversial. Thomas Franks (2004) argued that cultural differences led white Kansans to abandon the Democratic Party for the Republican Party during the 1980s. He specifically argued that abortion was the unifying issue in this ideological migration. Simultaneously, future President Ronald Reagan opened his campaign for the presidency in Philadelphia, Mississippi, the sight of the massacre of four young civil rights activists over a decade earlier. Race has and is a factor in the American experience; Franks’ premise is simply that the absence of the concentration of African Americans in the Kansas area negated the influence of the “black threat hypothesis” on the observed ideological switch of white Kansans. This work argues that Franks’ premise fails to incorporate the over arching ideological switch of white voter migration to the Republican party that was occurring during the same period, and that Reagan’s speech in Philadelphia, Mississippi was an overt cue that he was rejecting the civil rights consensus for an historically established “race-based social contract” that positioned people of color outside the traditional bounds of the social contract. The study is a sociopolitical analysis of the African American experience utilizing the “racial contract” framework developed by Charles Mills. The “racial contract” holds that the social contract explicitly dictates interactions and transaction costs between citizens and government. Mills supposition is that historically non-Western Europeans were excluded from the penalties for violations of the social contract, and a tacit race based contract dictated transaction costs and interactions between Europeans and non-Europeans. The work utilizes the framework to trace the sociopolitical environment from the first appearance of Africans in America to the present. It has the supposition that the initial sociopolitical status of Africans in America was as a result of the reformation of the Western feudal agrarian culture, with African captives attached to the land as the neo-serfs; but that the reformation of feudalism was only possible within the context that Africans were implicitly viewed as outside the bounds of the codified social contract. It traces American sociopolitical conflict over the expansion of the “racial contract,” which was the basis of the American Civil War; and the establishment of an implicit sociopolitical order within the bounds of the racial contract at the end of the Civil War, with codified sanctions for violations of commensality and endogamy.
📒The American Untouchables ✍ Andre Smith
✏The American Untouchables Book Summary : The American social order is generally defined by three social classes: the poor, the middle, and the wealthy; however, in America there is a fourth, African-American. It is more akin to the Indian caste system, and African-Americans are at the floor of the caste system, the untouchables. The American social order, politics, education, and geography are played out through the lenses of race. The proposed examination holds that America¿s raced based social order began and is sustained by America¿s original social response to Africans. America established a slave system akin to the European feudal system in America¿s South. The system was delineated by land owners at the top, in the middle were poor whites, and at the bottom African-Americans. Like feudalism, the economic system was predicated on agriculture.
📒The Oxford Handbook Of Philosophy And Race ✍ Naomi Zack
✏The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race Book Summary : The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race provides-up- to-date explanation and analyses by leading scholars in African American philosophy and philosophy of race. Fifty-one original essays cover major topics from intellectual history to contemporary social controversies in this emerging philosophical subfield that supports demographic inclusion and emphasizes cultural relevance.
📒From Class To Race ✍ Charles Wade Mills
✏From Class to Race Book Summary : Mills argues for a new critical theory that develops the insights of the black radical political tradition. While challenging conventional interpretations of key Marxist concepts and claims, the author contends that Marxism has been 'white' insofar as it has failed to recognize the centrality of race and white supremacy to the making of the modern world.
✏A New Social Contract in a Latin American Education Context Book Summary : A New Social Contract in a Latin American Education Context is committed to what has become known as "perspective of the South:" understanding the South not as a geographical reference but as a vindication of the existence of ways of knowing and of living which struggle for their survival and for a legitimate place in a world where the respect for difference is balanced with the right for equality. The metaphor of the new social contract stands for the desire to envision another world, which paradoxically cannot but spring out of the entrails of the existing one. Could the same contract under which the colonial orders were erected serve as a tool for decolonizing relations, knowledge, and power? Consequently, what kind of education could effectively help structure a new social contract? These are some of the questions Streck addresses.
📒The Wire And America S Dark Corners ✍ Arin Keeble
✏The Wire and America s Dark Corners Book Summary : In post–9/11 America, while all eyes were on Iraq and Afghanistan, The Wire (2002–2008) focused on the dark realities of those living in America’s disintegrating industrial heartlands and drug-ravaged neighborhoods, striving against the odds in its schools, hospitals and legal system. With compelling story lines and a memorable cast of characters, The Wire has been compared to the work of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, with a level of detail rarely seen in a dramatic series. While the show garnered critical praise and a loyal following, a discussion of its political aspects—in particular Bush-era America—is overdue. This collection of new essays examines The Wire in terms of the War on Drugs, the racial and economic division of America’s cities, the surveillance state and the meaning of citizenship.
📒Democracy And The Political Unconscious ✍ Noëlle McAfee
✏Democracy and the Political Unconscious Book Summary : Political philosopher Noëlle McAfee proposes a powerful new political theory for our post-9/11 world, in which an old pathology-the repetition compulsion-has manifested itself in a seemingly endless war on terror. McAfee argues that the quintessentially human desire to participate in a world with others is the key to understanding the public sphere and to creating a more democratic society, a world that all members can have a hand in shaping. But when some are effectively denied this participation, whether through trauma or terror, instead of democratic politics, there arises a political unconscious, an effect of desires unarticulated, failures to sublimate, voices kept silent, and repression reenacted. Not only is this condition undemocratic and unjust, it may lead to further trauma. Unless its troubles are worked through, a political community risks continual repetition and even self-destruction. McAfee deftly weaves together her experience as an observer of democratic life with an array of intellectual schemas, from poststructural psychoanalysis to Rawlsian and Habermasian democratic theories, as well as semiotics, civic republicanism, and American pragmatism. She begins with an analysis of the traumatic effects of silencing members of a political community. Then she explores the potential of deliberative dialogue and other "talking cures" and public testimonies, such as the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, to help societies work through, rather than continually act out, their conflicts. Democracy and the Political Unconscious is rich in theoretical insights, but it is also grounded in the practical problems of those who are trying to process the traumas of oppression, terror, and brutality and create more decent and democratic societies. Drawing on a breathtaking range of theoretical frameworks and empirical observations, Democracy and the Political Unconscious charts a course for democratic transformation in a world sorely lacking in democratic practice.