The Oxford Handbook Of Local And Regional Democracy In Europe
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📒The Oxford Handbook Of Local And Regional Democracy In Europe ✍ John Loughlin
✏The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe Book Summary : The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe analyses the state of play of democracy at the subnational level in the 27 member states of the EU plus Norway and Switzerland. It places subnational democracy in the context of the distinctive Anglo, the French, the German and Scandinavian state traditions in Europe asking to what extent these are still relevant today. The Handbook adapts Lijphart's theory of democracy and applies it to the subnational levels in all the country chapters. A key theoretical issue is whether subnational (regional and local) democracy is derived from national democracy or whether it is legitimate in its own right. Besides these theoretical concerns it focuses on the practice of democracy: the roles of political parties and interest groups and also how subnational political institutions relate to the ordinary citizen. This can take the form of local referendums or other mechanisms of participation. The Handbook reveals a wide variety of practices across Europe in this regard. Local financial systems also reveal a great variety. Finally, each chapter examines the challenges facing subnational democracy but also the opportunities available to them to enhance their democratic systems. Among the challenges identified are: Europeanization, globalization, but also citizens disaffection and switch-off from politics. Some countries have confronted these challenges more successfully than others but all countries face them. An important aspect of the Handbook is the inclusion of all the countries of East and Central Europe plus Cyprus and Malta, who joined the EU in 2004 and 2007. This is the first time they have been examined alongside the countries of Western Europe from the angle of subnational democracy.
📒The Oxford Handbook Of Political Leadership ✍ R. A. W. Rhodes
✏The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership Book Summary : Political leadership has made a comeback. It was studied intensively not only by political scientists but also by political sociologists and psychologists, Sovietologists, political anthropologists, and by scholars in comparative and development studies from the 1940s to the 1970s. Thereafter, the field lost its way with the rise of structuralism, neo-institutionalism, and rational choice approaches to the study of politics, government, and governance. Recently, however, students of politics have returned to studying the role of individual leaders and the exercise of leadership to explain political outcomes. The list of topics is nigh endless: elections, conflict management, public policy, government popularity, development, governance networks, and regional integration. In the media age, leaders are presented and stage-managed—spun—DDLas the solution to almost every social problem. Through the mass media and the Internet, citizens and professional observers follow the rise, impact, and fall of senior political officeholders at closer quarters than ever before. This Handbook encapsulates the resurgence by asking, where are we today? It orders the multidisciplinary field by identifying the distinct and distinctive contributions of the disciplines. It meets the urgent need to take stock. It brings together scholars from around the world, encouraging a comparative perspective, to provide a comprehensive coverage of all the major disciplines, methods, and regions. It showcases both the normative and empirical traditions in political leadership studies, and juxtaposes behavioural, institutional, and interpretive approaches. It covers formal, office-based as well as informal, emergent political leadership, and in both democratic and undemocratic polities.
📒The Oxford Handbook Of Danish Politics ✍ Peter Munk Christiansen
✏The Oxford Handbook of Danish Politics Book Summary : The Oxford Handbook of Danish Politics provides the most comprehensive and thorough English language book on Danish politics ever written. It features chapters by 50 leading experts who have contributed extensively to the field they write about. Why is Denmark an interesting topic for a Handbook? In some respects, Danish political institutions and political life are very similar to that of other small, North European countries such as the other Scandinavian countries and Netherland. However, in other respects, Danish politics is interesting in its own right. For instance, Denmark has a world record in minority governments. According to standard scholarly knowledge, this should result in unstable governments and a bad economy. This is not the case, however, since Denmark has a rather stable political system and a strong and robust economy among the strongest in Europe. How? The Danes have continued reservations towards the EU despite close to 50 years of EC/EU membership, and the Danes rejected the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. Still, the EU issue is handled in ways that do not call for large political battles. How? A third example is that Denmark used to be known as a tolerant and liberal society; its Jews were almost all saved during German occupation during WWII, Denmark was the first country to free pornography, and the first country to formally register same-sex couples. Yet recent Danish politics has also been associated with xenophobia and anti-Muslim sentiments. Why?
📒Routledge Handbook Of Regionalism Federalism ✍ John Loughlin
✏Routledge Handbook of Regionalism Federalism Book Summary : Almost all states are either federal or regionalized in some sense. It is difficult to find a state that is entirely unitary and the Routledge Handbook of Regionalism and Federalism necessarily takes in almost the entire world. Both federalism and regionalism have been subjects of a vast academic literature mainly from political science but sometimes also from history, economics, and geography. This cutting edge examination seeks to evaluate the two types of state organization from the perspective of political science producing a work that is analytical rather than simply descriptive. The Handbook presents some of the latest theoretical reflections on regionalism and federalism and then moves on to discuss cases of both regionalism and federalism in key countries chosen from the world’s macro-regions. Assembling this wide range of case studies allows the book to present a general picture of current trends in territorial governance. The final chapters then examine failed federations such as Czechoslovakia and examples of transnational regionalism - the EU, NAFTA and the African Union. Covering evolving forms of federalism and regionalism in all parts of the world and featuring a comprehensive range of case studies by leading international scholars this work will be an essential reference source for all students and scholars of international politics, comparative politics and international relations.
📒The Principle Of Subsidiarity And Its Enforcement In The Eu Legal Order ✍ Katarzyna Granat
✏The Principle of Subsidiarity and its Enforcement in the EU Legal Order Book Summary : In this book, Katarzyna Granat analyses and evaluates Europe's experience with the Early Warning System (EWS) which allows national parliaments to review draft legislative acts of the European Union for their compatibility with the subsidiarity principle. The EWS was introduced in response to the perceived 'democratic deficit' of the EU and its 'creeping' competences, and represented one of the landmark reforms of the Lisbon Treaty. The purpose of this book is to present and critically analyse the functioning of the new mechanism of subsidiarity review and the role that national parliaments have played within this system. Compared to the existing leading publications on the Europeanisation of national parliaments and contributions on the EU principle of subsidiarity, this book offers – for the first time – a profound legal analysis of the procedure enriched by a comprehensive empirical analysis of the activities of national parliaments. It is directed at scholars of EU law and policy, European and national officials, and legal practitioners working in and with the national legislatures.
📒The Global Debt Crisis ✍ Paul E. Peterson
✏The Global Debt Crisis Book Summary : Debt crises have placed strains not only on the European Union's nascent federal system but also on the federal system in the United States. Old confrontations over fiscal responsibility are being renewed, often in a more virulent form, in places as far flung as Detroit, Michigan, and Valencia, Spain, to say nothing of Greece and Cyprus. Increasing the complexity of the issue has been public sector collective bargaining, now a component of most federal systems. The attendant political controversies have become the debate of a generation. Paul Peterson and Daniel Nadler have assembled experts from both sides of the Atlantic to break down the structural flaws in federal systems of government that have led to economic and political turmoil. Proposed solutions offer ways to preserve and restore vibrant federal systems that meet the needs of communities struggling for survival in an increasingly unified global economy. Contributors: Andrew G. Biggs (American Enterprise Institute); César Colino (National Distance Education University, Madrid); Eloísa del Pino (Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos, Madrid); Henrik Enderlein (Hertie School of Governance, Berlin); Cory Koedel (University of Missouri); Carlos Xabel Lastra-Anadón (Harvard University); Daniel Nadler (Harvard University); Shawn Ni (University of Missouri); Amy Nugent (Government of Ontario, Canada); James Pearce (Mowat Centre, University of Toronto, Canada); Paul E. Peterson (Harvard University); Michael Podgursky (University of Missouri); Jason Richwine (Washington, D.C.); Jonathan Rodden (Stanford Uni versity); Daniel Shoag (Harvard University); Richard Simeon (University of Toronto, Canada); Camillo von Müller (University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, and Leuphana University, Germany); Daniel Ziblatt (Harvard University)
📒The Archbishops Of Cyprus In The Modern Age ✍ Andrekos Varnava
✏The Archbishops of Cyprus in the Modern Age Book Summary : Cyprus Historical and Contemporary Studies Since the onset of Ottoman rule, but more especially from the mid-18th Century, the archbishops of the autocephalous Cypriot Orthodox Church have wielded a great deal of political power. Most people of a certain age will remember the bearded monk who became a Greek nationalist politician and the first President of the Republic of Cyprus in 1960, Archbishop Makarios III. Indeed his presence at Madame Tussaud’s is a reminder of his stature. But were all Cypriot archbishops such political and powerful Greek nationalists? This study is unique in its exploration of the peculiar role of the archbishop-ethnarch and, as such, offers valuable historical and political insights into the phenomenon. This book offers a political history of religious authorities in the pre-modern, modern, and post-modern eras. It examines how nationalist politics evolved and was co-opted by religious authorities in order to re-establish political hegemony from a secular European colonial power, and the consequences this entailed after the end of the British empire.
📒The Oxford Handbook Of European History 1914 1945 ✍ Nicholas Doumanis
✏The Oxford Handbook of European History 1914 1945 Book Summary : The period spanning the two World Wars was unquestionably the most catastrophic in Europe's history. Historians have been drawn to its exceptionally dramatic and harrowing events, as bookshops continue to stock new studies on Hitler, Stalin, Churchill, the Holocaust, and the battles of the two World Wars with monotonous regularity. There is a deeper need, however, to explain why Europe experienced so many conflicts, revolutions, coup d'états, and civil wars within such a short space of time? Why did much of Europe succumb to authoritarian rule and why did political violence become so endemic? Why was mass politics followed by mass murder? Why did Europe experience a 'Thirty Years' War'? Another challenge is to explain the diversity of experiences: why some European societies were not traumatized by war and invasion, why liberal democracy survived throughout north-western Europe, why general living standards continued to rise, and why the status of women continued to improve. The Oxford Handbook of European History 1914-1945 looks afresh at this troubled and complicated age. It does so by taking comparative and transnational approaches rather than merely focusing on individual national experiences. Its features a collection of distinguished historians who explain the patterns of change and continuity that applied generally, while at the same time accounting for various regional and local articulations. Among the themes covered are political economy, international relations, genocide, colonialism, gender, sexuality, human rights, welfare, rural politics, labour and youth, as well as the era's more distinctive features, such as fascism, Stalinism, the Great Depression, trench warfare and the ethnic cleansing. The Handbook serves as a guide for revising the 1914-1945 era, and for how to write histories that take the whole Europe as their subject and not merely its constituent parts: histories of Europe rather than merely in Europe.
📒Democratic Local Governance ✍ G. Shabbir Cheema
✏Democratic Local Governance Book Summary : Asian countries have introduced major reforms and new institutional mechanisms in recent years to promote the engagement of elected local governments, civil society, and the private sector. This book examines emerging issues in democratic local governance and factors that influenced the impetus for and the substance of reforms. It asks the following questions: * What have been the challenges in designing and implementing decentralization policies and programs? * What are the constraints on strengthening citizen participation? * Can reforms promote gender and rights perspectives in local governance? * What is the role of local government in service delivery and access? * How effective are the mechanisms for accountability and transparency in local governance? * What are the driving forces influencing democratic local governance reform? The book addresses these questions as it discusses studies from theoretical and comparative perspectives on specific issues as well as myriad cases across Asia, often dealing with country-specific reforms.
📒Institutional Development And Transition ✍ Asya El-Meehy
✏Institutional Development and Transition Book Summary : "Have Arab uprisings opened space for deeper, grassroots-driven decentralization reforms in the region? What are the optimum designs, sequencing and models of decentralization for countries in political transition? While political discourse in the region uniformly emphasizes reforming State institutions, decentralization reform agendas have unfolded along contrasting trajectories across Arab transition countries. Both contextual and historical dynamics seem to shape visions for the orientation and pace of decentralization reforms as well as the empirical feasibility of shifting power relations among the various tiers of State administration. Drawing on findings from field research and recent analyses, this study argues that uprisings have created stronger momentum for revisiting the question of decentralization reforms in Libya and Yemen, where the very nature of the State is being redefined, compared to the cases of Egypt and Tunisia, where all stakeholders agree on preserving the unitary State model. In the latter cases, while there is evidence that new advocacy movements focused on reforming local government structures have emerged, they have thus far remained elite-led. Grassroots activism at local community levels has served to empower new actors, who, in some cases, have been successful at extracting concessions from local authorities. These efforts, however, predominantly focus on improving access to public services within the existing context of centralized State structures, and seem often to have failed to gain the trust of local community members as potential partners in local governance. Building on focus group discussions among working-class residents in Greater Cairo and on interviews with Egyptian political elites, the study highlights an emerging critical gap between youth expectations and, on the other hand, the envisioned plans of the political elite. While youth are more likely to demand deeper reforms across all three dimensions of decentralization (administrative, fiscal and political), political elites disagree not only on which particular dimension(s) of reforms should be implemented, but also on the urgency of decentralization during early phases of political transformation. The latter's wide range of views reflect deep concerns over political capture by traditional elites, weakness of political parties as well as potentially detrimental impacts of reforms on State capacity and the nation-State's territorial integrity. The study concludes by drawing lessons from France's successful contract-based record of decentralization and presents policy recommendations for countries that have emerged from the Arab uprisings with relatively strong centralized State structures and cohesive national identities."--Publisher's description.