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✏De structuur van wetenschappelijke revoluties Book Summary :
📒The Invention Of International Relations Theory ✍ Nicolas Guilhot
✏The Invention of International Relations Theory Book Summary : The 1954 Conference on Theory, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, featured a who's who of scholars and practitioners debating the foundations of international relations theory. Assembling his own team of experts, all of whom have struggled with this legacy, Nicolas Guilhot revisits a seminal event and its odd rejection of scientific rationalism. Far from being a spontaneous development, these essays argue, the emergence of a "realist" approach to international politics, later codified at the conference, was deliberately triggered by the Rockefeller Foundation. The organization was an early advocate of scholars who opposed the idea of a "science" of politics, pursuing, for the sake of disciplinary autonomy, a vision of politics as a prerational and existential dimension that could not be "solved" by scientific means. As a result, this nascent theory was more a rejection of behavioral social science than the birth of one of its specialized branches. The archived conversations reproduced here, along with unpublished papers by Hans Morgenthau, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Paul Nitze, speak to this defensive stance. International relations theory is critically linked to the context of postwar liberalism, and the contributors explore how these origins have played out in political thought and American foreign policy.
📒The Invention Of Clouds ✍ Richard Hamblyn
✏The Invention of Clouds Book Summary : An extraordinary yet little-known scientific advance occurred in the opening years of the nineteenth century when a young amateur meteorologist, Luke Howard, gave the clouds the names by which they are known to this day. By creating a language to define structures that had, up to then, been considered random and unknowable, Howard revolutionized the science of meteorology and earned the admiration of his leading contemporaries in art, literature and science. Richard Hamblyn charts Howard’s life from obscurity to international fame, and back to obscurity once more. He recreates the period’s intoxicating atmosphere of scientific discovery, and shows how this provided inspiration for figures such as Goethe, Shelley and Constable. Offering rich insights into the nature of celebrity, the close relationship between the sciences and the arts, and the excitement generated by new ideas, The Invention of Clouds is an enthralling work of social and scientific history.
📒The Invention Of Science ✍ David Wootton
✏The Invention of Science Book Summary : A companion to such acclaimed works as The Age of Wonder, A Clockwork Universe, and Darwin’s Ghosts—a groundbreaking examination of the greatest event in history, the Scientific Revolution, and how it came to change the way we understand ourselves and our world. We live in a world transformed by scientific discovery. Yet today, science and its practitioners have come under political attack. In this fascinating history spanning continents and centuries, historian David Wootton offers a lively defense of science, revealing why the Scientific Revolution was truly the greatest event in our history. The Invention of Science goes back five hundred years in time to chronicle this crucial transformation, exploring the factors that led to its birth and the people who made it happen. Wootton argues that the Scientific Revolution was actually five separate yet concurrent events that developed independently, but came to intersect and create a new worldview. Here are the brilliant iconoclasts—Galileo, Copernicus, Brahe, Newton, and many more curious minds from across Europe—whose studies of the natural world challenged centuries of religious orthodoxy and ingrained superstition. From gunpowder technology, the discovery of the new world, movable type printing, perspective painting, and the telescope to the practice of conducting experiments, the laws of nature, and the concept of the fact, Wotton shows how these discoveries codified into a social construct and a system of knowledge. Ultimately, he makes clear the link between scientific discovery and the rise of industrialization—and the birth of the modern world we know.
📒The Social Creation Of Nature ✍ Lorne Leslie Neil Evernden
✏The Social Creation of Nature Book Summary : "I think "The Social Creation of Nature" stands Evernden in relation to the present generation roughly as Thoreau stood in relation to New England Transcendentalism."--Max Oelschlaeger, author of "The Idea of Wilderness.""A thoughtful and illuminating book... For Evernden, wildness' is what should be defended and preserved."-- "New Scientist."One reason for our failure to "save the earth," argues Neil Evernden, is our disagreement about what "nature" really is--how it works, what constitutes a risk to it, and even whether we ourselves are part of it. Nature is as much a social entity as a physical one. In addition to the physical resources to be harnessed and transformed, it consists of a domain of norms that may be called upon in defense of certain social ideals. In exploring the consequences of conventional understandings of nature, "The Social Creation of Nature" also seeks a way around the limitations of a socially created nature in order to defend what is actually imperiled--"wildness," in which, Thoreau wrote, lies hope for "the preservation of the world."
📒Legal Protection For Computer Implemented Inventions ✍ Sabine Kruspig
✏Legal Protection for Computer Implemented Inventions Book Summary : As a result of the incorporation of computer software into countless commercial and industrial products, the patentability of software has become a vital issue in intellectual property law. This indispensable book provides an overview on the current status of computer-implemented inventions in patent law across Europe and major jurisdictions worldwide. A hugely practical field research tool with guidance based on case law, it examines the major hurdles in each particular country and describes the best practice to be adopted. Clearly showing how enforceable software patent applications can be competitively drafted and how a patent portfolio for computer-implemented inventions can be established in several countries without spending money unnecessarily on problematic examination proceedings, this book covers such issues and topics as the following: • claim categories for patent applications; • sufficient level of abstraction/breadth of the claimed invention; • fundamental terms of computing and terminological traps; • probability for patents dependent on software application areas; and • patents in core areas of computing. With separate chapters for the key countries, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the United States, China, Korea, Japan, India, and the European Patent Office the legal situation for computer-implemented inventions in each country or region, this book includes guidance on prosecution under national law, analyses of relevant court decisions, practice checklists, and an outlook on future developments.. The authors describe claim formulation based on actual cases and on principles of computer science in order to show what might be or might not be patentable in each jurisdiction. With this incomparable resource, patent attorneys and patent professionals in companies will get a basis for making decisions about the most appropriate jurisdictions in which to file patent applications. This book will also be of great value to computer professionals who are affected by the protection of software or who are actively involved in the protection of software by patent law.
📒Teaching Primary Science Constructively Pdf ✍ Keith Skamp
✏Teaching Primary Science Constructively PDF Book Summary : Teaching Primary Science Constructively helps readers to create effective science learning experiences for primary students by using a constructivist approach to learning. Introductory chapters explain the principles of constructivism and their implications for learning and teaching. They also discuss core strategies for the development of science understanding and science inquiry processes and skills. An important new chapter assists readers to interpret the Australian Curriculum: Science with a constructivist mindset. Subsequent chapters then provide research-based ideas for implementing a constructivist approach within a number of content strands. This substantially revised edition incorporates recent research findings related to student learning, as well as teaching, from a constructivist perspective and highlights how teaching emphases have changed over the last few years. Throughout, it links strongly to the key ideas, themes and terminology of the Australian Curriculum: Science.
📒Bright Earth ✍ Philip Ball
✏Bright Earth Book Summary : From Egyptian wall paintings to the Venetian Renaissance, impressionism to digital images, Philip Ball tells the fascinating story of how art, chemistry, and technology have interacted throughout the ages to render the gorgeous hues we admire on our walls and in our museums. Finalist for the 2002 National Book Critics Circle Award.
📒Universe Of Stone ✍ Philip Ball
✏Universe of Stone Book Summary : In the twelfth century, Christians in Europe began to build a completely new kind of church - soaring, spacious monuments flooded with light from immense windows. These were the first Gothic churches, the crowning example of which was the cathedral of Chartres: a revolution in thought embodied in stone and glass, and a bridge between the ancient and modern worlds. In Universe of Stone, Philip Ball explains the genesis and development of the Gothic style. He argues that it signified a profound change in the social, intellectual and theological climate of Western Christendom. As the church represented nothing less than a vision of heaven on earth, this shift in architectural style marked the beginning of the argument between faith and reason which continues today, and of a scientific view of the world that threatened to dispense with God altogether.
✏The British Study Edition of the Urantia Papers Book eReader PDF Book Summary :