The Evolution Of The Immune System

The Evolution Of The Immune System Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Evolution of the Immune System
✏Author : Davide Malagoli
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2016-07-21
✏Pages : 384
✏ISBN : 9780128020135
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Evolution of the Immune System Book Summary : The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership

Host And Microbe Adaptations In The Evolution Of Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Host and Microbe Adaptations in the Evolution of Immunity
✏Author : Larry J. Dishaw
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2019-12-31
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889630226
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Host and Microbe Adaptations in the Evolution of Immunity Book Summary : The evolution of metazoans has been accompanied by new interfaces with the microbial environment that include biological barriers and surveillance by specialized cell types. Increasingly complex organisms require increased capacities to confront pathogens, achieved by co-evolution of recognition mechanisms and regulatory pathways. Two distinct but interactive forms of immunity have evolved. Innate immunity, shared by all metazoans, is traditionally viewed as simple and non-specific. Adaptive immunity possesses the capacity to anticipate new infectious challenges and recall previous exposures; the most well-understood example of such a system, exhibited by lymphocytes of vertebrates, is based on somatic gene alterations that generate extraordinary specificity in discrimination of molecular structures. Our understanding of immune phylogeny over the past decades has tried to reconcile immunity from a vertebrate standpoint. While informative, such approaches cannot completely address the complex nature of selective pressures brought to bear by the complex microbiota (including pathogens) that co-exist with all metazoans. In recent years, comparative studies (and new technologies) have broadened our concepts of immunity from a systems-wide perspective. Unexpected findings, e.g., genetic expansions of innate receptors, high levels of polymorphism, RNA-based forms of generating diversity, adaptive evolution and functional divergence of gene families and the recognition of novel mediators of adaptive immunity, prompt us to reconsider the very nature of immunity. Even fundamental paradigms as to how the jawed vertebrate adaptive immune system should be structured for “optimal” recognition potential have been disrupted more than once (e.g., the discovery of the multicluster organization and germline joining of immunoglobulin genes in sharks, gene conversion as a mechanism of somatic diversification, absence of IgM or MHC II in certain teleost fishes). Mechanistically, concepts of innate immune memory, often referred to as “trained memory,” have been realized further, with the development of new discoveries in studies of epigenetic regulation of somatic lineages. Immune systems innovate and adapt in a taxon-specific manner, driven by the complexity of interactions with microbial symbionts (commensals, mutualists and pathogens). Immune systems are shaped by selective forces that reflect consequences of dynamic interactions with microbial environments as well as a capacity for rapid change that can be facilitated by genomic instabilities. We have learned that characterizing receptors and receptor interactions is not necessarily the most significant component in understanding the evolution of immunity. Rather, such a subject needs to be understood from a more global perspective and will necessitate re-consideration of the physical barriers that afford protection and the developmental processes that create them. By far, the most significant paradigm shifts in our understanding of immunity and the infection process has been that microbes no longer are considered to be an automatic cause or consequence of illness, but rather integral components of normal physiology and homeostasis. Immune phylogeny has been shaped not only by an arms race with pathogens but also perhaps by mutualistic interactions with resident microbes. This Research Topic updates and extends the previous eBook on Changing Views of the Evolution of Immunity and contains peer-reviewed submissions of original research, reviews and opinions.

Exam Prep For The Evolution Of The Immune System Book PDF
✏Book Title : Exam Prep for The Evolution of the Immune System
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN :
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✏Exam Prep for The Evolution of the Immune System Book Summary :

📒Immunity ✍ Alfred I. Tauber

Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Immunity
✏Author : Alfred I. Tauber
✏Publisher : Oxford University Press
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages : 303
✏ISBN : 9780190651244
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Immunity Book Summary : " Senior scholar Alfred Tauber argues in this bold account that common approaches to the study of immunology are inherently flawed in its strict dichotomy of the self and non-self, or external invaders. The relationship between what is self and what is non-self is in reality a complex, dymanic, relational one. Autonomous agents are constantly in the midst of dialectical exchanges in which immunity mediates both noxious and benign encounters. Namely: rather than serving to defend an independent entity, immunity participates in an eco-system. Contemporary transplantation biology and autoimmunity have demonstrated phenomena that upset rigid adherence to the self/non-self dichotomy. Placing tolerant immune mechanisms within a broad ecological context has highlighted the balance of co-operative and competitive relationships in which immunity functions. By understanding immunity this way, as a 'symbiotic turn, ' we come to see that immune reactivity (rejection or tolerance) is a second-order response to the cognitive functions of the immune system. Organisms have a complex capacity to respond to environment, and, through Tauber's insignts, we appreciate them more fully when we grasp the flexibility of the borders of organisms. After first providing an overview of the history of immunology, and explaining why the dominant understanding of it is incomplete and limiting, Tauber argues for this new approach to immunology and explains how it will usher in a new biology in which symbiosis is the rule, not the exception. "--

The Past And The Future Of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Past and the Future of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure
✏Author : Gkikas Magiorkinis
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2019-12-04
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889632299
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Past and the Future of Human Immunity Under Viral Evolutionary Pressure Book Summary : There is a long-standing evolutionary battle between viruses and their hosts that continues to be waged. The evidence of this conflict can be found on both sides, with the human immune system being responsive to new viral challenges and viruses having developed often sophisticated countermeasures. The “arms race” between viruses and hosts can be thought as an example of the “Red Queen” race, an evolutionary hypothesis inspired from the dialogue of Alice with the Red Queen in Lewis Carroll’s “Through the Looking-Glass”. At the same time, viruses have a minimal genomic content as they have evolved to hitchhike biological machinery of their hosts (or other co-infecting viruses). The minimalistic viral genome could be thought as the result of a “Black Queen” evolution, a theory inspired from the card game Heart, where the winner is the one with the fewest points at the end. The effects of this arms race are evident in the evolution of the human immune system. This system is capable of responding to diverse viral challenges, utilizing both the ancient innate immune system and the more recently evolved adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. It is now well-known that the two systems are linked, with innate immunity hypothesized to have provided raw material for the emergence of the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune response comprises several protein families (including B and T cell receptors, MHC and KIR proteins, for example) that are encoded by complex and variable genomic regions. This complexity enables for responsive genetic changes to occur in immune cells, such as the ability of genomic hypervariable regions in B cells to recombine in order to produce more specific antibodies. Indeed, the human immune system is thought to be continually evolving via various mechanisms such as changes in the genes encoding immune receptors and the regulatory sequences that control their expression. For example, there is some evidence that exogenous viral infections can alter the expression of endogenous retroviruses, some of which contribute to the immune response. Viral countermeasures can include encoding decoy receptors for the signalling molecules of the immune response, altering the gene expression of adaptive immune cells during chronic infection or using host enzymes to facilitate viral immune escape. As the articles herein show, the immune system continues to be challenged by viral infections and these challenges continue to shape how the immune system combats pathogens, thus viruses and human immunity are continuously part of “Red and Black Queen” evolutionary dynamics. We had the pleasure of working with Jonas Blomberg as a reviewer during the course of the Research Topic and his untimely passing was a great loss. Prof. Blomberg made significant contributions, including to the nomenclature of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the evolution and characterization of specific human ERV (HERV) and the contribution of ERVs to diseases such as cancer. It is with great respect for his contributions to the ERV field that we dedicate this eBook to his memory.

Origin Of Anti Tumor Immunity Failure In Mammals Book PDF
✏Book Title : Origin of Anti Tumor Immunity Failure in Mammals
✏Author : Ivan Bubanovic
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2004-07-21
✏Pages : 253
✏ISBN : 9780306486296
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Origin of Anti Tumor Immunity Failure in Mammals Book Summary : The history of science has shown the majority of hypotheses to be wrong. Sharp scientific criticism and strictly controlled experimental studies reject most of the hypotheses, leaving behind only a small number of assumptions and ideas. Nevertheless, each logical assumption should have its rightful place on the scientific “battlefield” supposed to assess its validity and determine its final fate. Even when a hypothesis is wrong, it still finds its place in the entire efforts of the humankind towards attaining the scientific truth. Namely, the wrong hypotheses serve largely to illuminate the way towards the correct ones or, at least, to show which way not to follow. Correct or not, ideas and hypotheses are necessary for the progress of science. They epitomize the efforts of human thought to elucidate nature without experimental verification and in the circumstances of scant data availability. Finally, hypotheses and ideas represent a symbiotic creation of our knowledge and imagination, the two most impressive appearances in the evolution of humans.

Phylogenetic Perspectives On The Vertebrate Immune System Book PDF
✏Book Title : Phylogenetic Perspectives on the Vertebrate Immune System
✏Author : Gregory Becker
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2001-03-31
✏Pages : 383
✏ISBN : 0306464314
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Phylogenetic Perspectives on the Vertebrate Immune System Book Summary : This book contains the proceedings of the first meeting on invertebrate immunity ever sponsored as a summer research conference by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). The conference was held in Copper Mountain, CO from July 11-16, 1999. It was a an extension of a New York Academy of Sciences meeting entitled "Primordial Immunity: Foundations for the Vertebrate Immune System" held on May 2-5,1993 at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, MA. The proceedings of that meeting were published in The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (volume 712). At that meeting all the attendes agreed that this type of conference (a relatively small focused gathering) allowed for participation by investigators at all levels of their careers. We further agreed that we should search for a forum that would allow this meeting to continue. The FASEB Summer Research Conference was an excellent vehicle for this type of meeting. Furthermore, this year's participants decided to continue this meeting as a regularly scheduled FASEB sponsored event. This was a unique conference in the sense that it focused upon mechanisms of development and defense in protostome and deuterostome invertebrates and lower vertebrates. There was a strong emphasis on evolutionary cell biology, phylogenetic inferences and the evolution of recognition and regulatory systems.

📒Amphioxus Immunity ✍ An-Long Xu

Amphioxus Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Amphioxus Immunity
✏Author : An-Long Xu
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2015-12-31
✏Pages : 304
✏ISBN : 9780128096475
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Amphioxus Immunity Book Summary : Amphioxus Immunity: Tracing the Origin of Human Immunity covers a remarkable range of information about Amphioxus and its evolutionary context. This compilation of what is currently known about Amphioxus, with a sharp focus on its immune system, includes 13 topics, such as: Amphioxus as a model for understanding the evolution of vertebrates basic knowledge of immunology immune organs and cells of amphioxus a genomic and transcriptomic view of the Amphioxus immunity pattern recognition system in Amphioxus transcription factors in Amphioxus the complement system of Amphioxus the oxidative burst system in Amphioxus immune effectors in Amphioxus lipid signaling of immune response in Amphioxus apoptosis in amphioxus; primitive adaptive immune system of Amphioxus and future research directions This valuable reference book is loaded with information that will be useful for anyone who wishes to learn more about the origin of vertebrates and adaptive immunity. Provides new evidence on the origin of the adaptive immune system, the evolution of innate immunity, and evolution-stage specific immune defense mechanisms Not only presents the cells and molecules involved in the adaptive immune response in Amphioxus, but also characterizes the origination and evolution of the gene families and pathways involved in innate immunity Includes much pioneering work, from the molecular, genomic, and cellular to the individual level

📒Molecular Evolution Of Life ✍ Herrick Baltscheffsky

Molecular Evolution Of Life Book PDF
✏Book Title : Molecular Evolution of Life
✏Author : Herrick Baltscheffsky
✏Publisher : Cambridge University Press
✏Release Date : 1986-12-18
✏Pages : 375
✏ISBN : 0521336422
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Molecular Evolution of Life Book Summary : An interdisciplinary account of the recent advances made in understanding fundamental molecular aspects of the pre-biological and biological evolution of life.

Immunology And Evolution Of Infectious Disease Book PDF
✏Book Title : Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease
✏Author : Steven A. Frank
✏Publisher : Princeton University Press
✏Release Date : 2020-10-06
✏Pages : 360
✏ISBN : 9780691220161
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease Book Summary : From HIV to influenza, the battle between infectious agents and the immune system is at the heart of disease. Knowledge of how and why parasites vary to escape recognition by the immune system is central to vaccine design, the control of epidemics, and our fundamental understanding of parasite ecology and evolution. As the first comprehensive synthesis of parasite variation at the molecular, population, and evolutionary levels, this book is essential reading for students and researchers throughout biology and biomedicine. The author uses an evolutionary perspective to meld the terms and findings of molecular biology, immunology, pathogen biology, and population dynamics. This multidisciplinary approach offers newcomers a readable introduction while giving specialists an invaluable guide to allied subjects. Every aspect of the immune response is presented in the functional context of parasite recognition and defense--an emphasis that gives structure to a tremendous amount of data and brings into sharp focus the great complexity of immunology. The problems that end each chapter set the challenge for future research, and the text includes extensive discussion of HIV, influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, and many other pathogens. This is the only book that treats in an integrated way all factors affecting variation in infectious disease. It is a superb teaching tool and a rich source of ideas for new and experienced researchers. For molecular biologists, immunologists, and evolutionary biologists, this book provides new insight into infectious agents, immunity, and the evolution of infectious disease.

Immune System Accessory Cells Book PDF
✏Book Title : Immune System Accessory Cells
✏Author : Lubor Fornusek
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 1992-06-26
✏Pages : 448
✏ISBN : 0849359821
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Immune System Accessory Cells Book Summary : Immune System Accessory Cells provides a comprehensive survey of all types of antigen-presenting and accessory cells. Macrophages are emphasized through descriptions of different types of endocytosis, other major properties, and all basic and new information concerning macrophages as antigen-presenting cells. Other topics covered include the impact of the immunodeficient state on accessory functions, the evolutionary emergence of accessory functions, and the role of various cell types in defense reactions in major assemblages of Metazoa. The book also presents a chapter describing the phylogenetic aspects of accessory functions, which traces the first accessory cells during the evolution of living matter. Immune System Accessory Cells is an excellent reference for immunologists, cell biologists, and others interested in developing an understanding of the roles of accessory cells in all facets of immune reactions.

Insect Infection And Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Insect Infection and Immunity
✏Author : Jens Rolff
✏Publisher : OUP Oxford
✏Release Date : 2009-06-25
✏Pages : 272
✏ISBN : 9780191579141
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Insect Infection and Immunity Book Summary : Under continual attack from both microbial pathogens and multicellular parasites, insects must cope with immune challenges every day of their lives. However, this has not prevented them from becoming the most successful group of animals on the planet. Insects possess highly-developed innate immune systems which have been fine-tuned by an arms race with pathogens spanning hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary history. Recent discoveries are revealing both an unexpected degree of specificity and an indication of immunological memory - the functional hallmark of vertebrate immunity. The study of insect immune systems has accelerated rapidly in recent years and is now becoming an important interdisciplinary field. Furthermore, insects are a phenomenally rich and diverse source of antimicrobial chemicals. Some of these are already being seriously considered as potential therapeutic agents to control microbes such as MRSA. Despite a burgeoning interest in the field, this is the first book to provide a coherent synthesis and is clearly structured around two broadly themed sections: mechanisms of immunity and evolutionary ecology. This novel text adopts an interdisciplinary and concept-driven approach, integrating insights from immunology, molecular biology, ecology, evolutionary biology, parasitology, and epidemiology. It features contributions from an international team of leading experts. Insect Infection and Immunity is suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in insect immunity from either an evolutionary, genetical, physiological or molecular perspective. Due to its interdisciplinary and concept-driven approach, it will also appeal to a broader audience of immunologists, parasitologists and evolutionary biologists requiring a concise overview.

The Evolution Of Insect Mating Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems
✏Author : David Shuker
✏Publisher : OUP Oxford
✏Release Date : 2014-07-31
✏Pages : 352
✏ISBN : 9780191030888
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems Book Summary : Insects display a staggering diversity of mating and social behaviours. Studying these systems provides insights into a wide range of evolutionary and behavioural questions, such as the evolution of sex, sexual selection, sexual conflict, and parental care. This edited volume provides an authoritative update of the landmark book in the field, The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems (Thornhill and Alcock, 1983), which had such a huge impact in shaping adaptationist approaches to the study of animal behaviour and influencing the study of the evolution of reproductive behaviour far beyond the taxonomic remit of insects. This accessible new volume brings the empirical and conceptual scope of the original book fully up to date, incorporating the wealth of new knowledge and research of the last 30 years. It explores the evolution of complex forms of sex determination in insects, and the role of sexual selection in shaping the evolution of mating systems. Selection arising via male contest competition and female choice (both before and after copulation) are discussed, as are the roles of parasites and pathogens in mediating the strength of sexual selection, and the role that parental care plays in successful reproduction. The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems is suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in insect mating systems or behaviour from an evolutionary, genetical, physiological, or ecological perspective. Due to its interdisciplinary and concept-driven approach, it will also be of relevance and use to a broad audience of evolutionary biologists.

📒Immunology Of Annelids ✍ Martin Bilej

Immunology Of Annelids Book PDF
✏Book Title : Immunology of Annelids
✏Author : Martin Bilej
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 1993-12-16
✏Pages : 320
✏ISBN : 0849349095
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Immunology of Annelids Book Summary : Immunology of Annelids provides a state-of-the-art review of the biological and biochemical processes involved in defense reactions of annelids. The book covers phylogeny, taxonomy, and fundamental body structure to provide basic information essential to developing a full understanding of the defense system of an organism. Physiological aspects of the relationship between the immune systems and cells and their limitations are discussed in detail, and the role of cells in cellular defense, transplantation, and humoral defenses is explained. The importance of annelids and their defense reaction from the phylogenetic standpoint is examined in a chapter comparing vertebrate and invertebrate defense strategies. Immunology of Annelids is a practical reference for cell biologists, immunologists, evolutionary and developmental biologists, and other researchers who need insight into the development and hierarchy of immune reactions.

📒The Immune System ✍ Rodney Langman

The Immune System Book PDF
✏Book Title : The immune system
✏Author : Rodney Langman
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2014-07-23
✏Pages : 256
✏ISBN : 9780323158855
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The immune system Book Summary : 9780124365858 The Immune System: Evolutionary Principle Guide our Understanding of this Complex Biological Defense System provides the conceptual framework of immunology and the evolutionary events that have shaped the understanding of the immune system. This book contains 10 chapters, and begins with a brief discussion on the evolutionary aspects of immunology considering the Darwinian principles of evolution. This topic is followed by a presentation of the selective pressures that are likely to have molded the immune system, as well as the laws of the immune system and their corollaries concerning host defense mechanism. The subsequent chapters are devoted to cellular components of the immune system, including the B and T cells, immunoglobulins, interleukins, major histocompatibility complex, and lymphoid organs. The structural information and the evolutionary events in these immune system components are provided. A chapter focuses on the evolutionary successful components of the inflammatory system. The concluding chapter deals with the conflicting conventional wisdoms on functional immune system. This book will prove useful to immunologists and research workers in immunology and related fields.

📒Immunobiology Of The Shark ✍ Sylvia L. Smith

Immunobiology Of The Shark Book PDF
✏Book Title : Immunobiology of the Shark
✏Author : Sylvia L. Smith
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2014-12-04
✏Pages : 326
✏ISBN : 9781466595750
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Immunobiology of the Shark Book Summary : Immunity studies in sharks over the past three decades have produced some remarkable discoveries. If one message rings true, it is that alternative animal model systems, such as sharks and their relatives, have contributed very substantially to a better understanding of the development evolution of our own immune system. Immunobiology of the Shark describes the cellular, genetic, and molecular specifics of immune systems in sharks. Diverse approaches were employed to study the immunobiology of the shark from basic microscopic observations to detailed genome annotation. The book also raises a series of fascinating questions, which can be addressed experimentally using today’s technology. This book will be a valuable resource for mainstream immunologists, comparative immunologists, geneticists, ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and investigators engaged in shark research. The book also aims to illustrate the magnificence of these animals as model systems and underscores the importance of their study to further understand their complex, and often enigmatic, biology.

The Evolution Of The Human Placenta Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Evolution of the Human Placenta
✏Author : Michael L. Power
✏Publisher : JHU Press
✏Release Date : 2012-11-01
✏Pages : 280
✏ISBN : 9781421408705
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Evolution of the Human Placenta Book Summary : As the active interface of the most biologically intimate connection between two living organisms, a mother and her fetus, the placenta is crucial to human evolution and survival. Michael L. Power and Jay Schulkin explore the more than 100 million years of evolution that led to the human placenta and, in so doing, they help unravel the mysteries of human life's first moments. Starting with some of the earliest events that have influenced the path of placental evolution in mammals and progressing to the specifics of the human placenta, this book examines modern gestation within an evolutionary framework. Human beings are a successful species and our numbers have increased dramatically since our earliest days on Earth. However, human fetal development is fraught with poor outcomes for both the mother and fetus that appear to be, if not unique, far more common in humans than in other mammals. High rates of early pregnancy loss, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, preeclampsia and related maternal hypertension, and preterm birth are rare or absent in other mammals yet not unusual in humans. Power and Schulkin explain why this apparent contradiction exists and address such topics as how the placenta regulates and coordinates the metabolism, growth, and development of both mother and fetus, the placenta’s role in protecting a fetus from the mother’s immune system, and placental diseases. In the process, they reveal the vital importance of this organ—which is composed mostly of fetal cells—for us as individuals and as a species.

Theoretical Models In Biology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Theoretical Models in Biology
✏Author : Glenn Rowe
✏Publisher : Oxford University Press
✏Release Date : 1994
✏Pages : 420
✏ISBN : 0198596871
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Theoretical Models in Biology Book Summary : This book surveys current practice in theoretical and computer modelling in biology. The areas considered are: origin of life, the immune system, memory in the brain. Each area is introduced with a chapter on the relevant biology and models

Anatomy And Physiology For Midwives E Book Book PDF
✏Book Title : Anatomy and Physiology for Midwives E Book
✏Author : Jane Coad
✏Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
✏Release Date : 2011-06-10
✏Pages : 472
✏ISBN : 9780702045936
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Anatomy and Physiology for Midwives E Book Book Summary : Anatomy & Physiology for Midwives 3rd edition builds on the success of the first two editions with electronic ancillaries, more accessible, woman-centred language and strengthened links with good practice. The book provides a thorough review of anatomy and physiology applicable to midwifery, from first principles through to current research, utilizing case studies for reflection. A comprehensive and well-illustrated textbook that is an essential purchase for all students of midwifery.

📒Eco Immunology ✍ Davide Malagoli

Eco Immunology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Eco immunology
✏Author : Davide Malagoli
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2014-04-11
✏Pages : 179
✏ISBN : 9789401787123
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Eco immunology Book Summary : This book represents a cutting-edge contribution giving an all-around perspective of eco-immunology today. Beside questions of the utmost importance for the whole community of immunologists, e.g, the intrinsic limits of immunological experiments performed at the bench on a limited number of selected models, the book covers several other facets of the eco-immunological approach, including host-parasite interactions, human aging and population immunology. Throughout the book the importance of population dynamics and evolutionary diversification of immune systems is frequently recalled, and makes the reader aware of the basic similarities and differences existing between humans and the models adopted for studying human immune system. The evidenced differences have been recently challenging the reliability of several established animal models and in the book it is discussed for the first time in analytical terms whether mice are reliable models of human inflammatory disorders.

How The Immune System Recognizes Self And Nonself Book PDF
✏Book Title : How the Immune System Recognizes Self and Nonself
✏Author : Daisuke Kitamura
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2008-04-08
✏Pages : 251
✏ISBN : 4431738843
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏How the Immune System Recognizes Self and Nonself Book Summary : How do you discriminate yourself from other people? This question must sound odd to you since you easily recognize others at a glance and, without any effort, would not mistake them for yourself. However, it is not always easy for some people to discriminate themselves from others. For example, patients with schi- phrenia often talk with “others” living inside themselves. Thus it is likely that n- mally your brain actively recognizes and remembers the information belonging to yourself and discriminates it from the information provided by others, although you are not conscious of it. This brain function must have been particularly important for most animals to protect their lives from enemies and for species to survive through evolution. Similarly, higher organisms have also acquired their immune system through evolution that discriminates nonself pathogens and self-body to protect their lives from pathogens such as bacteria or viruses. The brain system may distinguish integrated images of self and nonself created from many inputs, such as vision, sound, smell, and others. The immune system recognizes and distinguishes a variety of structural features of self and nonself components. The latter actually include almost everything but self: for example, bacteria, viruses, toxins, pollens, chemicals, transplanted organs, and even tumor cells derived from self-tissue. To this end the immune system recruits different kinds of immune cells, such as B and T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages.

Artificial Immune Systems A New Computational Intelligence Approach Book PDF
✏Book Title : Artificial Immune Systems A New Computational Intelligence Approach
✏Author : Leandro Nunes Castro
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2002-09-23
✏Pages : 357
✏ISBN : 1852335947
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Artificial Immune Systems A New Computational Intelligence Approach Book Summary : Recently there has been a growing interest in the use of the biological immune system as a source of inspiration for solving complicated computational problems. The immune system involves many information-processing abilities including pattern recognition, learning, memory and inherent distributed parallel processing and for these, and other reasons, it has received a significant amount of interest as a metaphor within computing. This emerging field is known as Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), and applications of AIS include, machine learning, fault diagnosis, computer security, scheduling, virus detection and optimisation.

📒Primordial Immunity ✍ Gregory Beck

Primordial Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Primordial Immunity
✏Author : Gregory Beck
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1994
✏Pages : 376
✏ISBN : 0897668391
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Primordial Immunity Book Summary : Primitive species are capable of recognition and defence, thus lessons learned from them can provide a basis for understanding strategies that vertebrate animals have adopted. The papers in this volume explore the mechanisms of multicellular organisms used to distinguish between self and non-self in response to parasitism or infection. Studies of these mechanisms used by primitive species for their defences have extensive implications for understanding the evolution of immunity and problems of human health and disease.

📒The Immune System ✍ Peter Parham

The Immune System Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Immune System
✏Author : Peter Parham
✏Publisher : Garland Science
✏Release Date : 2014-10-01
✏Pages : 532
✏ISBN : 9781317511571
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Immune System Book Summary : The Immune System, Fourth Edition emphasizes the human immune system and presents immunological concepts in a coherent, concise, and contemporary account of how the immune system works. Written for undergraduate, medical, veterinary, dental, and pharmacy students, it makes generous use of medical examples to illustrate points. This classroom-proven

📒Artificial Immune Systems ✍ Leandro N. de Castro

Artificial Immune Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Artificial Immune Systems
✏Author : Leandro N. de Castro
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2007-08-28
✏Pages : 440
✏ISBN : 9783540739227
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Artificial Immune Systems Book Summary : This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems, ICARIS 2007, held in Santos, Brazil, August 2007. The papers are organized in topical sections on search and optimization, classification and clustering, anomaly detection and negative selection, robotics, control and electronics. Modeling papers, conceptual papers, and technical papers and general applications are also included.

Evolutionary Implication Of B 1 Lineage Cells From Innate To Adaptive Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Evolutionary Implication of B 1 Lineage Cells from Innate to Adaptive Immunity
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2016
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1052068017
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Evolutionary Implication of B 1 Lineage Cells from Innate to Adaptive Immunity Book Summary : Highlights: We summarize the advances in B-1 lineage cell features from fish to mammals. We compare the B-1 lineage cell features to those of macrophages and B-2 cells. We determine the evolutionary connection of B-1 lineage cells between innate and adaptive immunities. Abstract: The paradigm that B cells mainly play a central role in adaptive immunity may have to be reevaluated because B-1 lineage cells have been found to exhibit innate-like functions, such as phagocytic and bactericidal activities. Therefore, the evolutionary connection of B-1 lineage cells between innate and adaptive immunities have received much attention. In this review, we summarized various innate-like characteristics of B-1 lineage cells, such as natural antibody production, antigen-presenting function in primary adaptive immunity, and T cell-independent immune responses. These characteristics seem highly conserved between fish B cells and mammalian B-1 cells during vertebrate evolution. We proposed an evolutionary outline of B cells by comparing biological features, including morphology, phenotype, ontogeny, and functional activity between B-1 lineage cells and macrophages or B-2 cells. The B-1 lineage may be a transitional cell type between phagocytic cells ( e.g ., macrophages) and B-2 cells that functionally connects innate and adaptive immunities. Our discussion would contribute to the understanding on the origination of B cells specialized in adaptive immunity from innate immunity. The results might provide further insight into the evolution of the immune system as a whole.

📒Understanding Immunology ✍ Alastair J. Cunningham

Understanding Immunology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Understanding Immunology
✏Author : Alastair J. Cunningham
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2012-12-02
✏Pages : 268
✏ISBN : 9780323139076
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Understanding Immunology Book Summary : Understanding Immunology deals with immunology and its unifying principles, based on the view that the immune system has evolved to combat infectious disease. This book describes the phylogenetic emergence of the immune system; immune reactions in invertebrates and vertebrates; antibody-antigen reactions and the induction of the antibody response; the development of the immune repertoire and self-tolerance; and memory and tolerance in T-cells. This text is organized into 15 chapters and begins with an overview of the immune system, paying particular attention to its basic requirements and properties. This book then discusses antibodies and antigens; the molecular biology of antibody formation; and the role of lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue, and antibody forming cells in the immune response. The following chapters focus on immunocompetent cells and the mechanisms of cell cooperation in the induction of the antibody response, properties of the cells responsible for memory, and the genetic basis of antibody diversity. The reader is also introduced to allelic exclusion and the ontogeny of the immune repertoire; differentiation of T-cells; and cancer and transplantation immunology. The remaining chapters explore aberrations of the immune system and immunity to infectious disease. A comparison of the strategies of vertebrates and invertebrates in adapting to unexpected changes in the environment concludes the book. This book will prove useful as an introduction to immunology to those with some background in biology, particularly, undergraduate or graduate students as well as established researchers in other fields.

📒Veterinary Immunology ✍ Michael J. Day

Veterinary Immunology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Veterinary Immunology
✏Author : Michael J. Day
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2010-08-15
✏Pages : 256
✏ISBN : 9781840766387
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Veterinary Immunology Book Summary : This book accompanies and complements the teaching of immunology within the veterinary curriculum. It covers large and small animals, and provides clear learning objectives focusing on immunological principles while applying them to the disease process and to clinical practice. The book is case based and illustrated throughout in color.

📒Immunology ✍ Richard Coico

Immunology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Immunology
✏Author : Richard Coico
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2009-01-14
✏Pages : 391
✏ISBN : 9780470081587
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Immunology Book Summary : "Each chapter is complemented with bulleted summaries and review questions with detailed answers. The book also contains an extensive glossary. Written in a clear, user-friendly style, this text is suitable for integrated courses that cover microbiology, immunology, and pathology, as well as focused immunology courses."--BOOK JACKET.

📒Artificial Immune Systems ✍ Hugues Bersini

Artificial Immune Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Artificial Immune Systems
✏Author : Hugues Bersini
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2006-08-30
✏Pages : 460
✏ISBN : 9783540377498
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Artificial Immune Systems Book Summary : ICARIS 2006 is the ?fth instance of a series of conferences dedicated to the comprehension and the exploitation of immunological principles through their translation into computational terms. All scienti?c disciplines carrying a name that begins with “arti?cial” (followed by “life,” “reality,” “intelligence” or “- munesystem”) aresimilarlysu?ering froma veryambiguousidentity.Their axis of research tries to stabilize an on-going identity somewhere in the crossroad of engineering (building useful artifacts), natural sciences (biologyor psychology— improving the comprehension and prediction of natural phenomena) and t- oretical computer sciences (developing and mastering the algorithmic world). Accordingly and depending on which of these perspectives receives more s- port, they attempt at attracting di?erent kinds of scientists and at stimul- ing di?erent kinds of scienti?c attitudes. For many years and in the previous ICARIS conferences, it was clearly the “engineering” perspective that was the most represented and prevailed through the publications. Indeed, since the o- gin of engineering and technology, nature has o?ered a reserve of inexhaustible inspirations which have stimulated the development of useful artifacts for man. Biology has led to the development of new computer tools, such as genetic - gorithms, Boolean and neural networks, robots learning by experience, cellular machines and others that create a new vision of IT for the engineer: parallel, ?exible andautonomous.Inthis type of informatics,complexproblemsareta- led with the aid of simple mechanisms, but in?nitely iterated in time and space.