The Color Revolutions
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📒The Color Revolutions ✍ Lincoln A. Mitchell
✏The Color Revolutions Book Summary : From late 2003 through mid-2005, a series of peaceful street protests toppled corrupt and undemocratic regimes in Georgia, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan and ushered in the election of new presidents in all three nations. These movements—collectively known as the Color Revolutions—were greeted in the West as democratic breakthroughs that might thoroughly reshape the political terrain of the former Soviet Union. But as Lincoln A. Mitchell explains in The Color Revolutions, it has since become clear that these protests were as much reflections of continuity as they were moments of radical change. Not only did these movements do little to spur democratic change in other post-Soviet states, but their impact on Georgia, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan themselves was quite different from what was initially expected. In fact, Mitchell suggests, the Color Revolutions are best understood as phases in each nation's long post-Communist transition: significant events, to be sure, but far short of true revolutions. The Color Revolutions explores the causes and consequences of all three Color Revolutions—the Rose Revolution in Georgia, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan—identifying both common themes and national variations. Mitchell's analysis also addresses the role of American democracy promotion programs, the responses of nondemocratic regimes to the Color Revolutions, the impact of these events on U.S.-Russian relations, and the failed "revolutions" in Azerbaijan and Belarus in 2005 and 2006. At a time when the Arab Spring has raised hopes for democratic development in the Middle East, Mitchell's account of the Color Revolutions serves as a valuable reminder of the dangers of confusing dramatic moments with lasting democratic breakthroughs.
📒Color Revolutions In Eurasia ✍ Julia Gerlach
✏Color Revolutions in Eurasia Book Summary : Why have large-scale protests and mass demonstrations in some post-socialist Eurasian states led to the fall of autocratic leaders, whereas similar other regimes prevail? This book addresses the question by providing an overview of eight cases of so-called Color Revolutions, and explains factors of ‘success’ and ‘failure’ by discussing the state-of-the-art in the political science discourse on Color Revolutions. It concludes by summarizing and contextualizing the results of the analysis and highlighting open research for political science on the theme of Color Revolutions.
📒Color Revolutions Techniques In Breaking Down Modern Political Regimes ✍ Oleg Karpovich; Andrei Manoilo
✏Color Revolutions Techniques in Breaking Down Modern Political Regimes Book Summary : The monograph is devoted to the analysis of the problems associated with the dismantling of the political regimes in modern states (both authoritarian and democratic type) and with the role of technology in the process of color revolutions.
📒Protecting The Status Quo ✍ U. S. Military
✏Protecting the Status Quo Book Summary : This study examines Russia's reaction to the recent electoral revolutions and mass protest movements across Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, all of which the Russians labeled "color revolutions." More explicitly, it analyzes Russian understanding of the color revolution threat, the Russian security forces' actions to address vulnerabilities to the threat, the non-military actions taken to minimize the threat, and the military efforts made to both support and to gain the support of Russia's regional allies. Russia's understanding and reaction to the color revolution threat is one largely driven by the West's perceived role in color revolutions. Russia has succeeded in severing the ties between Western democratization efforts and Russian civil society, while Russia's new National Guard strengthens the tie between the Kremlin and the country' s internal coercive forces. However, Russia's military has largely not reacted to the threat, and the country' s efforts to gain allies against the threat have received only half-hearted support. Overall, Russia's anti-color revolution strategy, if it can be called a strategy, has been executed unevenly across the various ministries; but understanding how Russia perceives and reacts to the threat is essential, especially if Russia uses what it has learned to foment a color revolution in a NATO country. I. INTRODUCTION * A. THE THREAT AS RUSSIA SEES IT * B. A MILITARY EMPHASIS ON THE NEW THREAT * C. THE IDEA OF A COORDINATED RUSSIAN "STRATEGY" * D. THE NEED TO UNDERSTAND YOUR ADVERSARY * E. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY * II. UNDERSTANDING THE THREAT * A. SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE * 1. Organizational Resistance to Change * 2. Cultural Resistance to Change * B. THE COLOR REVOLUTION DISCUSSION THUS FAR * 1. Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation * 2. Russia's Informal Military Doctrine * 3. Color Revolution Defenses * C. A DELAYED RESPONSE TO COLOR REVOLUTIONS * III. REACTION TO COLOR REVOLUTIONS * A. THE ROSGVARDIYA: CREATING A MORE RELIABLE COERCIVE FORCE * B. NATIONAL DEFENSE MANAGEMENT CENTER * C. STRENGTHENED COERCIVE CONTROL * IV. SUPPORT SYSTEMS * A. PREVENTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THREATS * B. MINIMIZING AND DISRUPTING GROWING THREATS * C. SUPPORTING RUSSIA'S SECURITY FORCES TO COPE WITH THREATS * D. AN INCOMPLETE AND HALF-HEARTED SUPPRESSION OF CIVIL SOCIETY * V. PARTNERS AND ALLIES * A. RUSSIAN SUPPORT FOR LIKE-MINDED ALLIES * B. CSTO SUPPORT FOR RUSSIAN ACTIONS ABROAD * C. RUSSIA'S APATHETIC ANTI-COLOR REVOLUTION ALLIES * VI. CONCLUSION
📒Democracy Promotion And The Colour Revolutions ✍ Susan Stewart
✏Democracy Promotion and the Colour Revolutions Book Summary : This book reviews the interplay between domestic contexts and democracy promotion efforts in selected countries of the former Soviet Union and the Western Balkans. The idea behind the six case studies is twofold. In the three cases where ‘colour revolutions’ occurred (Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine), the authors explore the extent to which external democracy promoters adapted their strategies to respond to new domestic contexts. In the other three cases (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Russia) the authors investigate how the political leadership has reacted to ‘colour revolutions’ elsewhere and which consequences their reactions have had for democracy promotion. In all cases an assessment of democratization processes in the country is provided as a basis for drawing conclusions about the potential for domestic and foreign actors to promote democratic development. An introduction and conclusion embed the case studies in the existing literature on democracy promotion and generalize the findings across the countries studied. On the practical level, the volume offers suggestions for improving democracy promotion endeavours, proposing in particular a more balanced approach which goes beyond supporting specific individuals and organizations to include addressing the structural level. This book was published as a special issue of Democratization.
📒Obama ✍ Webster Griffin Tarpley
✏Obama Book Summary : Remember compassionate conservatism and a humble foreign policy? You should. Tarpley reveals that the Obama puppet's advisors are even more radical reactionaries than the neo-cons. Check out the rave reviews on Amazon: "a crash course in political science". Distils three decades of political insight and astute analysis, from a unique perspective.
📒Coloured Revolutions And Authoritarian Reactions ✍ Evgeny Finkel
✏Coloured Revolutions and Authoritarian Reactions Book Summary : Between 2000 and 2005, colour revolutions swept away authoritarian and semi-authoritarian regimes in Serbia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. Yet, after these initial successes, attempts to replicate the strategies failed to produce regime change elsewhere in the region. The book argues that students of democratization and democracy promotion should study not only the successful colour revolutions, but also the colour revolution prevention strategies adopted by authoritarian elites. Based on a series of qualitative, country-focused studies the book explores the whole spectrum of anti-democratization policies, adopted by autocratic rulers and demonstrates that authoritarian regimes studied democracy promotion techniques, used in various colour revolutions, and focused their prevention strategies on combatting these techniques. The book proposes a new typology of authoritarian reactions to the challenge of democratization and argues that the specific mix of policies and rhetoric, adopted by each authoritarian regime, depended on the perceived intensity of threat to regime survival and the regime’s perceived strength vis-à-vis the democratic opposition. This book was published as a special issue of Democratization.
📒Uncertain Democracy ✍ Lincoln A. Mitchell
✏Uncertain Democracy Book Summary : In November of 2003, a stolen election in the former Soviet republic of Georgia led to protests and the eventual resignation of President Eduard Shevardnadze. Shevardnadze was replaced by a democratically elected government led by President Mikheil Saakashvili, who pledged to rebuild Georgia, orient it toward the West, and develop a European-style democracy. Known as the Rose Revolution, this early twenty-first-century democratic movement was only one of the so-called color revolutions (Orange in Ukraine, Tulip in Kyrgyzstan, and Cedar in Lebanon). What made democratic revolution in Georgia thrive when so many similar movements in the early part of the decade dissolved? Lincoln A. Mitchell witnessed the Rose Revolution firsthand, even playing a role in its manifestation by working closely with key Georgian actors who brought about change. In Uncertain Democracy, Mitchell recounts the events that led to the overthrow of Shevardnadze and analyzes the factors that contributed to the staying power of the new regime. The book also explores the modest but indispensable role of the United States in contributing to the Rose Revolution and Georgia's failure to live up to its democratic promise. Uncertain Democracy is the first scholarly examination of Georgia's recent political past. Drawing upon primary sources, secondary documents, and his own NGO experience, Mitchell presents a compelling case study of the effect of U.S. policy of promoting democracy abroad.
📒The Color Revolution ✍ Phillip Dennis Cate
✏The color revolution Book Summary :
📒The Colour Revolutions In The Former Soviet Republics ✍ Donnacha Ó Beacháin
✏The Colour Revolutions in the Former Soviet Republics Book Summary : During the first decade of the 21st century, a remarkable phenomenon swept through the former Soviet Union changing the political, social and cultural landscape. Popularly known as the ‘Colour Revolutions’, these non-violent protests overthrew autocratic regimes in three post-soviet republics: the Georgian Rose Revolution (2003), the Ukrainian Orange Revolution (2004) and the Kyrgyzstani Tulip Revolution (2005). This book examines the significance of these regime-change processes for the post-soviet world in particular and for global politics in the 21st century. Engaging comprehensively with the former Soviet republics, the contributors to this book ask why there wasn’t a revolution in a post-Soviet republic such as Russia, despite apparently favourable conditions. They also explore the circumstances that ensured some post-soviet countries underwent a successful colour revolution whilst others did not. Identifying the conditions for successful colour revolutions, this book asks whether there is a revolutionary blueprint that may be exported to other areas around the world that are under autocratic rule. Carefully considering the ideologies of the post-Soviet ruling regimes, this book demonstrates the manner by which political elites integrated nationalism, authoritarianism and populism into public debates. It analyzes the diverse anti-regime movements, discussing the factors that led to the rise of such factions and outlining how these opposition groups were constituted and operated. In addition, it assesses the impact of external forces including the influence of the USA, the EU and Russia. By examining the colour revolution phenomenon in its entirety, this book marks a significant contribution to both our micro and macro understanding of this tide of transformation.