Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films For Electronic Applications

Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films For Electronic Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications
✏Author : Zheng Cui
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2020-06-11
✏Pages : 180
✏ISBN : 9780128149317
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications Book Summary : Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications discusses the fundamentals of solution processing materials chemistry techniques as they are applied to metal oxide materials systems for key device applications. The book introduces basic information (materials properties, materials synthesis, barriers), discusses ink formulation and solution processing methods, including sol-gel processing, surface functionalization aspects, and presents a comprehensive accounting on the electronic applications of solution processed metal oxide films, including thin film transistors, photovoltaic cells and other electronics devices and circuits. This is an important reference for those interested in oxide electronics, printed electronics, flexible electronics and large-area electronics. Provides in-depth information on solution processing fundamentals, techniques, considerations and barriers combined with key device applications Reviews important device applications, including transistors, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells Includes an overview of metal oxide materials systems (semiconductors, nanomaterials and thin films), addressing materials synthesis, properties, limitations and surface aspects

Metal Oxide Powder Technologies Book PDF
✏Book Title : Metal Oxide Powder Technologies
✏Author : Yarub Al-Douri
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2020-06-02
✏Pages : 446
✏ISBN : 9780128175064
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Metal Oxide Powder Technologies Book Summary : Metal Oxide Powder Technologies: Fundamentals, Processing Methods and Applications reviews the fundamentals, processing methods and applications of this key materials system. Topics addressed comprehensively cover chemical and physical properties, synthesis, preparation, both accepted and novel processing methods, modeling and simulation. The book provides fundamental information on the key properties that impact performance, such as particle size and crystal structure, along with methods to measure, analyze and evaluate. Finally, important applications are covered, including biomedical, energy, electronics and materials applications. Provides a comprehensive overview of key topics both on the theoretical side and the experimental Discusses important properties that impact metal oxide performance, processing methods (both novel and accepted), and important applications Reviews the most relevant applications, such as biomedical, energy, electronics and materials applications

Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Book PDF
✏Book Title : Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
✏Author :
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2019-10-16
✏Pages : 608
✏ISBN : 9780128133583
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Book Summary : Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications is a one-stop reference for anyone with an interest in the fundamentals, synthesis and applications of this interesting materials system. The book presents a simple, effective and detailed discussion on colloidal metal oxide nanoparticles. It begins with a general introduction of colloidal metal oxide nanoparticles, then delves into the most relevant synthesis pathways, stabilization procedures, and synthesis and characterization techniques. Final sections discuss promising applications, including bioimaging, biosensing, diagnostic, and energy applications—i.e., solar cells, supercapacitors and environment applications—i.e., the treatment of contaminated soil, water purification and waste remediation. Provides the most comprehensive resource on the topic, from fundamentals, to synthesis and characterization techniques Presents key applications, including biomedical, energy, electronic and environmental Discusses the most relevant techniques for synthesis, patterning and characterization

Cerium Oxide Ceo2 Synthesis Properties And Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Cerium Oxide CeO2 Synthesis Properties and Applications
✏Author : Salvatore Scire
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2019-08-21
✏Pages : 402
✏ISBN : 9780128156629
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Cerium Oxide CeO2 Synthesis Properties and Applications Book Summary : Cerium Oxide (CeO2): Synthesis, Properties and Applications provides an updated and comprehensive account of the research in the field of cerium oxide based materials. The book is divided into three main blocks that deal with its properties, synthesis and applications. Special attention is devoted to the growing number of applications of ceria based materials, including their usage in industrial and environmental catalysis and photocatalysis, energy production and storage, sensors, cosmetics, radioprotection, glass technology, pigments, stainless steel and toxicology. A brief historical introduction gives users background, and a final chapter addresses future perspectives and outlooks to stimulate future research. The book is intended for a wide audience, including students, academics and industrial researchers working in materials science, chemistry and physics. Addresses a wide range of applications of ceria-based materials, including catalysis, energy production and storage, sensors, cosmetics and toxicology Provides the fundamentals of ceria-based materials, including synthesis methods, materials properties, toxicology and surface chemistry Includes nanostructured ceria-based materials and a discussion of future prospects and outlooks

📒Metal Oxide Nanostructures ✍ Daniela Nunes

Metal Oxide Nanostructures Book PDF
✏Book Title : Metal Oxide Nanostructures
✏Author : Daniela Nunes
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2018-11-01
✏Pages : 328
✏ISBN : 9780128115053
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Metal Oxide Nanostructures Book Summary : Metal Oxide Nanostructures: Synthesis, Properties and Applications covers the theoretical and experimental aspects related to design, synthesis, fabrication, processing, structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties on the topic. In addition, it reviews surface functionalization and hybrid materials, focusing on the advantages of these oxide nanostructures. The book concludes with the current and future prospective applications of these materials. Users will find a complete overview of all the important topics related to oxide nanostructures, from the physics of the materials, to its application. Delves into hybrid structured metal oxides and their promising use in the next generation of electronic devices Includes fundamental chapters on synthesis design and the properties of metal oxide nanostructures Provides an in-depth overview of novel applications, including chromogenics, electronics and energy

Large Area And Flexible Electronics Book PDF
✏Book Title : Large Area and Flexible Electronics
✏Author : Mario Caironi
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2015-01-13
✏Pages : 592
✏ISBN : 9783527679997
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Large Area and Flexible Electronics Book Summary : From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance. Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applications of large-area electronics, including flexible and ultra-high-resolution displays, light-emitting transistors, organic and inorganic photovoltaics, large-area imagers and sensors, non-volatile memories and radio-frequency identification tags. With its academic and industrial viewpoints, this volume provides in-depth knowledge for experienced researchers while also serving as a first-stop resource for those entering the field.

Chemical Solution Deposition Of Functional Oxide Thin Films Book PDF
✏Book Title : Chemical Solution Deposition of Functional Oxide Thin Films
✏Author : Theodor Schneller
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2014-01-24
✏Pages : 796
✏ISBN : 9783211993118
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Chemical Solution Deposition of Functional Oxide Thin Films Book Summary : This is the first text to cover all aspects of solution processed functional oxide thin-films. Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) comprises all solution based thin- film deposition techniques, which involve chemical reactions of precursors during the formation of the oxide films, i. e. sol-gel type routes, metallo-organic decomposition routes, hybrid routes, etc. While the development of sol-gel type processes for optical coatings on glass by silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide dates from the mid-20th century, the first CSD derived electronic oxide thin films, such as lead zirconate titanate, were prepared in the 1980’s. Since then CSD has emerged as a highly flexible and cost-effective technique for the fabrication of a very wide variety of functional oxide thin films. Application areas include, for example, integrated dielectric capacitors, ferroelectric random access memories, pyroelectric infrared detectors, piezoelectric micro-electromechanical systems, antireflective coatings, optical filters, conducting-, transparent conducting-, and superconducting layers, luminescent coatings, gas sensors, thin film solid-oxide fuel cells, and photoelectrocatalytic solar cells. In the appendix detailed “cooking recipes” for selected material systems are offered.

Solution Processing Of Inorganic Materials Book PDF
✏Book Title : Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials
✏Author : David Mitzi
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2008-12-22
✏Pages : 520
✏ISBN : 0470407611
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials Book Summary : Discover the materials set to revolutionize the electronics industry The search for electronic materials that can be cheaply solution-processed into films, while simultaneously providing quality device characteristics, represents a major challenge for materials scientists. Continuous semiconducting thin films with large carrier mobilities are particularly desirable for high-speed microelectronic applications, potentially providing new opportunities for the development of low-cost, large-area, flexible computing devices, displays, sensors, and solar cells. To date, the majority of solution-processing research has focused on molecular and polymeric organic films. In contrast, this book reviews recent achievements in the search for solution-processed inorganic semiconductors and other critical electronic components. These components offer the potential for better performance and more robust thermal and mechanical stability than comparable organic-based systems. Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials covers everything from the more traditional fields of sol-gel processing and chemical bath deposition to the cutting-edge use of nanomaterials in thin-film deposition. In particular, the book focuses on materials and techniques that are compatible with high-throughput, low-cost, and low-temperature deposition processes such as spin coating, dip coating, printing, and stamping. Throughout the text, illustrations and examples of applications are provided to help the reader fully appreciate the concepts and opportunities involved in this exciting field. In addition to presenting the state-of-the-art research, the book offers extensive background material. As a result, any researcher involved or interested in electronic device fabrication can turn to this book to become fully versed in the solution-processed inorganic materials that are set to revolutionize the electronics industry.

Inkjet Based Micromanufacturing Book PDF
✏Book Title : Inkjet based Micromanufacturing
✏Author : Oliver Brand
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2012-04-16
✏Pages : 388
✏ISBN : 9783527647118
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Inkjet based Micromanufacturing Book Summary : Inkjet-based Micromanufacturing Inkjet technology goes way beyond putting ink on paper: it enables simpler, faster and more reliable manufacturing processes in the fields of micro- and nanotechnology. Modern inkjet heads are per se precision instruments that deposit droplets of fluids on a variety of surfaces in programmable, repeating patterns, allowing, after suitable modifications and adaptations, the manufacturing of devices such as thin-film transistors, polymer-based displays and photovoltaic elements. Moreover, inkjet technology facilitates the large-scale production of flexible RFID transponders needed, eg, for automated logistics and miniaturized sensors for applications in health surveillance. The book gives an introduction to inkjet-based micromanufacturing, followed by an overview of the underlying theories and models, which provides the basis for a full understanding and a successful usage of inkjet-based methods in current microsystems research and development Overview of Inkjet-based Micromanufacturing: Thermal Inkjet Theory and Modeling Post-Printing Processes for Inorganic Inks for Plastic Electronics Applications Inkjet Ink Formulations Inkjet Fabrication of Printed Circuit Boards Antennas for Radio Frequency Identification Tags Inkjet Printing for MEMS

Annealing Temperature Influence On Sol Gel Processed Zirconium Oxide Thin Films For Electronic Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Annealing Temperature Influence on Sol gel Processed Zirconium Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1052012480
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Annealing Temperature Influence on Sol gel Processed Zirconium Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications Book Summary : Abstract: A study of zirconium oxide (ZrO2 ) thin films obtained by the non-alkoxide sol-gel method at different annealing temperatures, up to 450°C, is presented. Morphological, compositional, and optical characterizations of zirconia thin films show high transparency and high bandgap, besides homogeneous and non-porous surface. Metal-insulating-metal (MIM) devices were assembled from this zirconia material for electrical characterizations and have shown high electric resistivity and high specific capacitance. A study of the thin film composition shows residues of S and Cl elements from the precursor solution that contributes for reduction of the dielectric constant of the zirconia thin films, even though they still present higher values when compared to SiO2, which is a positive alternative to replace this oxide in electronic devices. A parallel study of MIM assembled on polymeric substrate and annealed at 100°C also leads to positive results concerning high electrical insulating and capacitance. This study aims the understanding of the relations between annealing temperature and impurities found in sol-gel based thin films, as well as their relations to dielectric characteristics of zirconia thin films that impact the final properties of electronic devices, such as in field effect transistors.

Structural Characterization Of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Using Solid State Nmr Book PDF
✏Book Title : Structural Characterization of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Using Solid state NMR
✏Author : Yvonne Afriyie
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages : 66
✏ISBN : OCLC:1085545246
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Structural Characterization of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Using Solid state NMR Book Summary : Aluminum is an ideal metal for solution-processed oxide dielectrics because it can form polymerized hydroxo networks in aqueous solution and dense amorphous oxide dielectrics by vacuum methods. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is one of the traditional vacuum methods for thin film deposition, however, ALD is not the most economically feasible method for thin film fabrication due to high operational cost and limitations in large surface-area applications. Solution deposition is a more economical deposition method which is more cost-saving and ideal for large surface area thin film fabrication. The behavior of the solution-solid structural conversion remains an enigma; thus, this research seeks to understand the structural transformation of thin films from solution to solid in order to fabricate films with optimal properties.Aluminum oxide (AlxOy) thin films prepared from aqueous solution-deposited cluster precursors have been proposed for use in devices such as high-k dielectrics in solar cell materials. The films are fabricated with different aluminum-derived precursors, spin-coated on a substrate and annealed at a range of temperatures. The low temperature range of these films are amorphous, therefore lack long range order. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) can be used to determine the amorphous structure of these materials. Herein, a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and NMR techniques are used to elucidate the transformation of these thin films as they are annealed to high temperatures.

Nanostructured Energy Devices Book PDF
✏Book Title : Nanostructured Energy Devices
✏Author : Juan Bisquert
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2014-11-11
✏Pages : 352
✏ISBN : 9781439836033
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Nanostructured Energy Devices Book Summary : Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It includes coverage of the physical principles that control energy devices made of nanostructured and bulk materials, with the main attention focused on solution processed thin film technologies. The book analyzes the fundamental concepts, main properties, and key applications of energy devices that are made using nanostructured materials and innovative thin film low cost technologies. This includes hybrid and organic solar cells, electrochemical batteries, diodes, LEDs and OLEDs, transistors, and the direct conversion of solar radiation to chemical fuels. It decodes rigorous formulation of thermodynamic concepts to establish energy diagrams, and explains also the fundamental kinetic models that determine the flow of electrons and ions in the device. The author lays out the main properties of semiconductors and their junctions for applications in solar cell and solar fuel devices. He emphasizes a unified view of the device operation principles that covers well-known examples but also enables you to discuss original research topics on a solid ground. Although a challenging field of science and technology, energy devices such as solar cells and batteries have the potential to impact the creation of a carbon-free energy economy. However, the field draws scientists from a broad set of backgrounds, united towards common goals. This text presents the main concepts that apply to several types of devices, from a very basic level so that you can gain insight into the general view of principles of operation of the energy devices. It pulls together the views and terminologies used by several communities to create better communication and increased collaboration among them.

Aqueous Derived Thin Films And Their Interfacial Interactions With Semiconductor Surfaces Book PDF
✏Book Title : Aqueous derived Thin Films and Their Interfacial Interactions with Semiconductor Surfaces
✏Author : Milana Cherie Thomas
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1096433530
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Aqueous derived Thin Films and Their Interfacial Interactions with Semiconductor Surfaces Book Summary : Metal oxide systems are well known for their high dielectric constants, which are important for advanced microelectronics applications. The microelectronics industry currently employs vacuum-based techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), to deposit metal oxide films. These vapor-phase deposition techniques suffer due to their slow deposition rates and their use of expensive equipment. Additionally, these processes sometimes require the use of harmful source gases and/or generate corrosive by-products. On the other hand, solution-processed thin films fabricated by spin-coating are advantageous because the process is simple, low cost, and scalable. Aqueous solution deposition is particularly attractive because it offers a green alternative to vapor-phase deposition and has been shown to produce uniform thin films by spin coating on hydrophilic silicon surfaces. However, it has been shown that silicon's native oxide can degrade device performance due to its electronic interfacial states. In addition, aqueousderived thin films suffer from poor electrical performance due to mobile water and hydroxyl protons, often requiring very high temperature anneals to mitigate. Such anneals compromise the interface between the film and the silicon substrate, hence the electrical performance. One effective method to control the interface, and thus improve device performance, is to functionalize the semiconductor surface using wet chemistry. Here, we address the concerns of aqueous thin film deposition and present a method for alleviating the issues associated with current silicon-silicon oxide devices. We use wet chemical functionalization to graft selfassembled monolayers (SAMs) onto oxide-free silicon, then spin-coat an aqueous thin film on top of the SAM layer. The chemical stability of the SAM and the changes that occur at the interfaces between the Si/SAM/film stack during film deposition and dehydration are monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The modification of the Si/SAM interface is studied as a function of annealing temperature, with electrical measurements used as a metric to quantify the effectiveness of the SAM layer to alleviate issues of interfacial defects observed for films on silicon oxide. The results are presented in three parts: (1) a dehydration study of aqueous-derived thin films deposited on silicon oxide, (2) the synthesis of a novel SAM interfacial layer tailored to accommodate aqueous, Al-based precursors and (3) a study to quantify the effectiveness, if any, on the SAM interfacial layer through electrical characterization methods. In the first part, we investigate the mechanism for dehydration of aqueous thin films and present a method to enhance the removal of water from the films. Using in situ FTIR, we find that the addition of a protective capping layer can enhance the dehydration of the thin film and prevent water reabsorption for a period of up to 14 days. In the second part, we present hydrosilylation methods to graft SAMs onto oxide-free silicon surfaces. The results show that it is possible to covalently attach the SAMs to silicon, evidenced by the formation of Si-C (detected by XPS) at the interface between the Si and the SAM. Four phosphonic acid-terminated SAMs are prepared and contact angle measurements are used as a metric for evaluating which can best accommodate aqueous spin-coater solutions. To conclude, we investigate the interface between the SAM layer and an aluminum-based thin film derived from aqueous precursor solutions. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements are used to quantify the effectiveness of the SAM layer.

Ferroelectric Thin Films Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ferroelectric Thin Films
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1998
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015040326749
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ferroelectric Thin Films Book Summary :

Chemical Aspects Of Electronic Ceramics Processing Volume 495 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Chemical Aspects of Electronic Ceramics Processing Volume 495
✏Author : Prashant N. Kumta
✏Publisher : Materials Research Society Sym
✏Release Date : 1998-08-03
✏Pages : 469
✏ISBN : UOM:39015041916662
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Chemical Aspects of Electronic Ceramics Processing Volume 495 Book Summary : Containing 65 papers from the symposium titled Chemical Aspects of Electronic Ceramics Processing held in November- December 1997 in Boston, the contents of this volume are divided into five sections: chemical vapor deposition of oxide ceramics; chemical vapor deposition of nonoxide ceramics; solution routes to ceramic materials; characterization and application of ceramic materials; and process characterization as a form of novel processing of ceramic materials. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices Book PDF
✏Book Title : Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices
✏Author : An Chen
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2014-11-26
✏Pages : 576
✏ISBN : 9781118958278
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices Book Summary : Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices focuses on the future direction of semiconductor and emerging nanoscale device technology. As the dimensional scaling of CMOS approaches its limits, alternate information processing devices and microarchitectures are being explored to sustain increasing functionality at decreasing cost into the indefinite future. This is driving new paradigms of information processing enabled by innovative new devices, circuits, and architectures, necessary to support an increasingly interconnected world through a rapidly evolving internet. This original title provides a fresh perspective on emerging research devices in 26 up to date chapters written by the leading researchers in their respective areas. It supplements and extends the work performed by the Emerging Research Devices working group of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Key features: • Serves as an authoritative tutorial on innovative devices and architectures that populate the dynamic world of “Beyond CMOS” technologies. • Provides a realistic assessment of the strengths, weaknesses and key unknowns associated with each technology. • Suggests guidelines for the directions of future development of each technology. • Emphasizes physical concepts over mathematical development. • Provides an essential resource for students, researchers and practicing engineers.

Engineered Materials Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Engineered Materials Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1993-04
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015026536469
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Engineered Materials Abstracts Book Summary :

Boranes Advances In Research And Application 2013 Edition Book PDF
✏Book Title : Boranes Advances in Research and Application 2013 Edition
✏Author :
✏Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
✏Release Date : 2013-06-21
✏Pages : 267
✏ISBN : 9781481698061
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Boranes Advances in Research and Application 2013 Edition Book Summary : Boranes—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about ZZZAdditional Research in a concise format. The editors have built Boranes—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about ZZZAdditional Research in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Boranes—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Solution Processed Fabrication Of Hybrid Organic Inorganic Perovskites Back Interface Engineering Of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Book PDF
✏Book Title : Solution processed Fabrication of Hybrid Organic inorganic Perovskites Back Interface Engineering of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells
✏Author : Suneth C. Watthage
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages : 179
✏ISBN : OCLC:1117340442
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Solution processed Fabrication of Hybrid Organic inorganic Perovskites Back Interface Engineering of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Book Summary : Thin film solar cells based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have become highly attractive over the past several years due to a high solar to electric power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Perovskite materials based on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3, MAPbI3) possess high optical absorption coefficients, long minority carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths, and desirable optical band gaps, and carrier collection in these materials can be highly efficient when they are paired with appropriate electron and hole transport materials (ETMs and HTMs), respectively. Additionally, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can be fabricated via a variety of solution-based routes, which are suitable for low-cost, large area manufacturing. The combination of these attributes gives PSCs an advantage over currently available commercial photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Understanding the nucleation and growth mechanisms, and controlling the grain size and crystallinity in the solution-processed fabrication of perovskite thin films are important to prepare electronic-quality materials for PV applications. We investigated the nucleation and growth mechanisms of MAPbI3 formed in a two-step solution process. To prepare the MAPbI3 films, PbI2 films were spin-coated and then were reacted with methylammonium iodide (MAI) in the isopropanol (IPA) solution at various concentrations. We showed that the conversion rate, grain size, and morphology of MAPbI3 perovskite films depend on the concentration of the MAI solution. Three distinct perovskite formation behaviors were observed at various MAI concentrations, and a tentative model was proposed to explain the reaction mechanisms. The nucleation and growth process of MAPbI3 can be significantly changed by adding divalent metal salts into the MAI solution. We showed that the incorporation of Cd2+ ions significantly improved the grain size, crystallinity, and photoexcited carrier lifetime of MAPbI3. Formation of (CH3NH3)2CdI4 (MA2CdI4) perovskite in the solution by reacting the MAI and Cd2+ is the key for this nucleation and growth change. Devices prepared using this approach showed a significant improvement in the PCE relative to control devices prepared without Cd2+ addition. The improved optoelectronic properties are attributed to a Cd-modified film growth mechanism that invokes low dimensional Cd-based perovskites. In addition to the Cd2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+ also have the potential to change the nucleation and growth process of MAPbI3 formation, to improve the material quality. Formation of Cd-based perovskites, once the Cd2+ ions contacted with MAI, successfully applied in the cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cell technology to form a Te layer on the CdTe surface, that would reduce the Schottky barrier height and band bending at the back contact, reducing the recombination at the back junction, and thus improve the device efficiency. We found that Cd can be selectively extracted from the CdTe surface by reacting MAI thin films with the CdTe surface, forming MA2CdI4 perovskite. MA2CdI4 is soluble in IPA, therefore can be rinsed out, leaving a Te layer behind on the CdTe surface. MAI treated CdTe devices showed a reduction in the barrier height at the back contact for both Au and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as calculated from the temperature dependent J-V measurements, resulting higher photovoltaic parameters of open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and PCE relative to the control devices. In addition, only a ~6% reduction in transmittance in the near infrared (NIR) region occurred in the devices with an ITO back electrode due to the MAI treatment, indicating this can be potentially used for the fabrication of high performance transparent CdTe solar cells that use in tandem solar cell or window applications.

The Physics Of Semiconductor Devices Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Physics of Semiconductor Devices
✏Author : R. K. Sharma
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2019-01-31
✏Pages : 1299
✏ISBN : 9783319976044
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Physics of Semiconductor Devices Book Summary : This book disseminates the current knowledge of semiconductor physics and its applications across the scientific community. It is based on a biennial workshop that provides the participating research groups with a stimulating platform for interaction and collaboration with colleagues from the same scientific community. The book discusses the latest developments in the field of III-nitrides; materials & devices, compound semiconductors, VLSI technology, optoelectronics, sensors, photovoltaics, crystal growth, epitaxy and characterization, graphene and other 2D materials and organic semiconductors.

Thin Film Transistor Technology 8 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Thin Film Transistor Technology 8
✏Author : Yue Kuo
✏Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
✏Release Date : 2006-01-01
✏Pages : 371
✏ISBN : 9781566775083
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Thin Film Transistor Technology 8 Book Summary : This issue includes funadmental and applied topics on materials, processes, devices, circuits, and new and novel applicaitons related to TFTs.

Organic Inorganic Hybrid Materials 2004 Volume 847 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Organic Inorganic Hybrid Materials 2004 Volume 847
✏Author : Clément Sanchez
✏Publisher : Mrs Proceedings
✏Release Date : 2005-07-29
✏Pages : 577
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822034984088
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Organic Inorganic Hybrid Materials 2004 Volume 847 Book Summary : The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.

Organic Inorganic Hybrid Materials Book PDF
✏Book Title : Organic inorganic Hybrid Materials
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2004
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015058740906
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Organic inorganic Hybrid Materials Book Summary :

📒Advanced Materials Forum Iii ✍ Paula M. Vilarinho

Advanced Materials Forum Iii Book PDF
✏Book Title : Advanced Materials Forum III
✏Author : Paula M. Vilarinho
✏Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
✏Release Date : 2006-05-15
✏Pages : 1840
✏ISBN : 9783038130444
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Advanced Materials Forum III Book Summary : Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The aim of this book is to provide the reader with the latest advanced research results on, and an improved understanding of, various aspects of the processing and characterization of materials.

Low Voltage Electrophoretic Deposition Of Nanocrystal Based Copper Chalcogenide Thin Films Book PDF
✏Book Title : Low Voltage Electrophoretic Deposition of Nanocrystal Based Copper Chalcogenide Thin Films
✏Author : Andrew Dillon
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages : 192
✏ISBN : OCLC:1129014910
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Low Voltage Electrophoretic Deposition of Nanocrystal Based Copper Chalcogenide Thin Films Book Summary : Photovoltaic (PV) devices are a clean and renewable source of energy, yet their widespread adoption is hindered by their cost, much of which is dominated by fabrication of the devices themselves. Current methods for PV device fabrication are slow and energy intensive. While much work has been done to engineer solution-processable precursors to thin-film electronic materials, particularly for PV applications, relatively little has been done in developing scalable methods for depositing these "inks". In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) is explored as a method for the fabrication of semiconducting thin films. For photovoltaic applications, a low process voltage is highly desirable to avoid damaging the accreting semiconductor. Herein is reported a continuous flow reactor design that can operate at reduced voltage compared to a traditional batch reactor while preserving the electrophoretic velocity of the NCs by utilizing narrow electrode spacing and removing film thickness limitations by continuously flowing the colloidal dispersion of NCs. Through modeling and experiment, the process parameters necessary to completely utilize the NCs in the feed solution, thereby achieving nearly 100% atom economy in the deposition process, are demonstrated. For electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to achieve its potential as a method for assembling functional semiconductors, however, it is necessary to understand both what governs the threshold voltage for deposition and how to reduce that threshold. Post-synthetic modification of the surface chemistry of all-inorganic copper-zinc-tin-sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals (NCs) enables EPD at voltages below 2V--a six-fold or greater improvement over previous examples of non-oxide semiconductors. The chemical exchange of the original surfactant-based NC-surface ligands with selenide ions yields essentially bare, highly surface-charged NCs. Thus, both the electrophoretic mobility and electrochemical reactivity of these particles are increased, favoring deposition, resulting in thick, uniform and crack-free films without sintering from stable, well-dispersed colloidal starting materials. In-situ imaging of the reactor during deposition provides a quantitative measure of the electric field in the bulk of the reactor; this, coupled with chronoamperometry, reveals the fundamental reaction and mass transport limitations of low-voltage EPD, and a crossover from mass transport-limited to reaction rate-limited EPD is observed. In order to fully realize an all-solution-processed PV device, every aspect of the device must be fabricated by solution-processing methods. Consequently, solution-processed transparent conductors are also studied. 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, known collectively as MXenes, are highly conductive and water-dispersible, suggesting their utility as solution-assembled optoelectronic and plasmonic materials. Here, 2D Ti3C2 is assembled from solution into optical quality, nanometers-thin films that, at 6500 Siemens-per-centimeter, surpass the conductivity of other solution-processed 2D materials due to their metal-like free-electron densities. Simultaneously they transmit >97% of visible light per-nanometer-thickness, constituting the first example of a new class of solution-processed, carbide-based 2D optoelectronic materials.

Ceramic Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ceramic Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2000
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : CORNELL:31924090528559
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ceramic Abstracts Book Summary :

Issues In Materials And Manufacturing Research 2011 Edition Book PDF
✏Book Title : Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research 2011 Edition
✏Author :
✏Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
✏Release Date : 2012-01-09
✏Pages : 7148
✏ISBN : 9781464963308
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research 2011 Edition Book Summary : Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Materials and Manufacturing Research. The editors have built Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Materials and Manufacturing Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Materials and Manufacturing Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

📒Green Electronics ✍ Cristian Ravariu

Green Electronics Book PDF
✏Book Title : Green Electronics
✏Author : Cristian Ravariu
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2018-06-20
✏Pages : 252
✏ISBN : 9781789233049
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Green Electronics Book Summary : The Green Electronics book is intended to stimulate people's thinking toward the new concepts of an environment-friendly electronics - the main challenge in the future. The book offers multiple solutions to push the classical electronic industry toward green concepts, aided by nanotechnologies, with revolutionary features that provide low power consumption in electronics, use biomaterials for integrated structures, and include environmental monitoring tools. Based on organic semiconductors/insulators without toxic precursors, green electronic technologies launched promising devices like OLED, OTFT, or nano-core-shell transistors. The Green Electronics book successfully presents the recent directions collected worldwide and leaves free space for continuing year by year with new subtopics.

Handbook Of Advanced Electronic And Photonic Materials And Devices Chalcogenide Glasses And Sol Gel Materials Book PDF
✏Book Title : Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices Chalcogenide glasses and sol gel materials
✏Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2001
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015051311572
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices Chalcogenide glasses and sol gel materials Book Summary :

International Aerospace Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : International Aerospace Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1998
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105021108324
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏International Aerospace Abstracts Book Summary :