Seeing Like A State In A Society Of States
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📒Seeing Like A State In A Society Of States ✍ Justiina Miina Ilona Dahl
✏Seeing Like a State in a Society of States Book Summary : This thesis argues that the emergence and expansion of the European-origin international society (EIS) has taken place through two dominant organizational processes. The first is the social organization and expansion of the international society. It is primarily associated with the stabilization and change of the hegemonic definitions of who are and can become legitimate holders of sovereignty in the international society. The second process is a material one associated with the negotiation, stabilization and change of specific, hegemonic techno-scientific mechanisms for the appropriation of sovereign authority over new terrains by the already members of the international society. The thesis sets out to describe the co-production of the two sets of fundamental and constitutional international institutions that I claim have been associated with this progress of the material as well as social expansion of the EIS. I conceptualize the international institutional framework these institutions makeup as 'the double-constitutional structure of the EIS'. The empirical focus in the study of the composition and change of the different elements of this structure is on how sovereign power has been constituted and mobilized for, what, in hindsight, can be regarded as failed attempts to appropriate specific Arctic regions through human settlement during the previous half a millennium. I conceptualize the case studies of these processes as cases of, in hindsight, failed attempts to geographically and materially expand the international society. Their analysis is organized according to what can be regarded as four international-system-wide revolutions in the epistemic authority structure of the EIS. Through the comparative analysis of the cases and these time periods I empirically illustrate what I theoretically conceptualize as the social role of science and technology in the northward expansion of the international society.
📒Seeing Like A State ✍ James C. Scott
✏Seeing Like a State Book Summary : “One of the most profound and illuminating studies of this century to have been published in recent decades.”—John Gray, New York Times Book Review Hailed as “a magisterial critique of top-down social planning” by the New York Times, this essential work analyzes disasters from Russia to Tanzania to uncover why states so often fail—sometimes catastrophically—in grand efforts to engineer their society or their environment, and uncovers the conditions common to all such planning disasters. “Beautifully written, this book calls into sharp relief the nature of the world we now inhabit.”—New Yorker “A tour de force.”— Charles Tilly, Columbia University
📒The Everyday State And Society In Modern India ✍ Christopher John Fuller
✏The Everyday State and Society in Modern India Book Summary : This work focuses on how the large, amorphous and impersonal Indian State affects the everyday lives of its citizens. It argues that state and society merge in the daily lives of most Indians, and the boundary between them is blurred and negotiable according to social context and position. The contibutors adopt the postion, contary to that of many others, that most Indians are able actively to comprehend and use the institutions of the state for their own purposes, rather than being merely its passive victims. Each chapter is based on empirical research and collectively they cover a wide range of anthropological and sociological material on modern India, from Delhi and Uttar Pradesh in the north, Maharashtra in the west, West Bengal in the esat, and Tamil Nadu and Kerala in the south. The book examines issues such as riot control, the Emergency, corruption irrigation, rural activism and education.
📒Seeing Like An International Organization ✍ André Broome
✏Seeing Like an International Organization Book Summary : This book contributes to the study of International Organizations (IOs) by providing a sharp focus on how IOs’ "analytic institutions" interact with states over key policy issues. Analytic institutions include the areas, departments, committees, adjudicatory bodies, and others housed by or linked to IOs that develop the cognitive framework for identifying, understanding, and solving policy problems. Analytic institutions make the state "legible" to IOs and are the key means for how IOs "see" their member states, shaping how international political and economic problems are understood. This book investigates why seeing like an IO matters through cases on leading organizations for global economic governance, including the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Bank for International Settlements, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, and the World Trade Organization. The contributors demonstrate the benefits of studying IOs "from the inside-out" to enrich our understanding of why issues in the international political economy are governed the way they are. This book was published as a special issue of New Political Economy.
📒Seeing Like A Citizen ✍ Kara Moskowitz
✏Seeing Like a Citizen Book Summary : In Seeing Like a Citizen, Kara Moskowitz approaches Kenya’s late colonial and early postcolonial eras as a single period of political, economic, and social transition. In focusing on rural Kenyans—the vast majority of the populace and the main targets of development interventions—as they actively sought access to aid, she offers new insights into the texture of political life in decolonizing Kenya and the early postcolonial world. Using multi-sited archival sources and oral histories focused on the western Rift Valley, Seeing Like a Citizen makes three fundamental contributions to our understanding of African and Kenyan history. First, it challenges the widely accepted idea of the gatekeeper state, revealing that state control remained limited and that the postcolonial state was an internally varied and often dissonant institution. Second, it transforms our understanding of postcolonial citizenship, showing that its balance of rights and duties was neither claimed nor imposed, but negotiated and differentiated. Third, it reorients Kenyan historiography away from central Kenya and elite postcolonial politics. The result is a powerful investigation of experiences of independence, of the meaning and form of development, and of how global political practices were composed and recomposed on the ground in local settings.
📒Bazaar And State In Iran ✍ Arang Keshavarzian
✏Bazaar and State in Iran Book Summary : The Tehran Bazaar has always been central to the Iranian economy and indeed, to the Iranian urban experience. Arang Keshavarzian's fascinating book compares the economics and politics of the marketplace under the Pahlavis, who sought to undermine it in the drive for modernisation and under the subsequent revolutionary regime, which came to power with a mandate to preserve the bazaar as an 'Islamic' institution. The outcomes of their respective policies were completely at odds with their intentions. Despite the Shah's hostile approach, the bazaar flourished under his rule and maintained its organisational autonomy to such an extent that it played an integral role in the Islamic revolution. Conversely, the Islamic Republic implemented policies that unwittingly transformed the ways in which the bazaar operated, thus undermining its capacity for political mobilisation. Arang Keshavarizian's book affords unusual insights into the politics, economics and society of Iran across four decades.
📒States Of Obligation ✍ Yanni Kotsonis
✏States of Obligation Book Summary : Beginning in the 1860s, the Russian Empire replaced a poll tax system that originated with Peter the Great with a modern system of income and excise taxes. Russia began a transformation of state fiscal power that was also underway across Western Europe and North America. States of Obligation is the first sustained study of the Russian taxation system, the first to study its European and transatlantic context, and the first to expose the essential continuities between the fiscal practices of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Using a wealth of materials from provincial and local archives across Russia, Yanni Kotsonis examines how taxation was simultaneously a revenue-raising and a state-building tool, a claim on the person and a way to produce a new kind of citizenship. During successive political, wartime, and revolutionary crises between 1855 and 1928, state fiscal power was used to forge social and financial unity and fairness and a direct relationship with individual Russians. State power eventually overwhelmed both the private sector economy and the fragile realm of personal privacy. States of Obligation is at once a study in Russian economic history and a reflection on the modern state and the modern citizen.
📒Anxieties Of Empire And The Fiction Of Intrigue ✍ Yumna Siddiqi
✏Anxieties of Empire and the Fiction of Intrigue Book Summary : Focusing on late nineteenth- and twentieth-century stories of detection, policing, and espionage by British and South Asian writers, Yumna Siddiqi presents an original and compelling exploration of the cultural anxieties created by imperialism. She suggests that while colonial writers use narratives of intrigue to endorse imperial rule, postcolonial writers turn the generic conventions and topography of the fiction of intrigue on its head, launching a critique of imperial power that makes the repressive and emancipatory impulses of postcolonial modernity visible. Siddiqi devotes the first part of her book to the colonial fiction of Arthur Conan Doyle and John Buchan, in which the British regime's preoccupation with maintaining power found its voice. The rationalization of difference, pronouncedly expressed through the genre's strategies of representation and narrative resolution, helped to reinforce domination and, in some cases, allay fears concerning the loss of colonial power. In the second part, Siddiqi argues that late twentieth-century South Asian writers also underscore the state's insecurities, but unlike British imperial writers, they take a critical view of the state's authoritarian tendencies. Such writers as Amitav Ghosh, Michael Ondaatje, Arundhati Roy, and Salman Rushdie use the conventions of detective and spy fiction in creative ways to explore the coercive actions of the postcolonial state and the power dynamics of a postcolonial New Empire. Drawing on the work of leading theorists of imperialism such as Edward Said, Frantz Fanon, and the Subaltern Studies historians, Siddiqi reveals how British writers express the anxious workings of a will to maintain imperial power in their writing. She also illuminates the ways South Asian writers portray the paradoxes of postcolonial modernity and trace the ruses and uses of reason in a world where the modern marks a horizon not only of hope but also of economic, military, and ecological disaster.
📒China S Urban Space ✍ Terry McGee
✏China s Urban Space Book Summary : China’s urban growth is unparalleled in the history of global urbanization, and will undoubtedly create huge challenges to China as it modernizes its society. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book presents an overview of the radical transformation of China’s urban space since the 1970s, arguing that to study the Chinese urbanization process one must recognize the distinctive political economy of China. After a long period as a planned socialist economy, China’s rapid entry into the global economy has raised suggestions that modernization in China will inevitably result in urban patterns and features like those of cities in developed market economies. This book argues that this is unlikely in the short term, because processes of urban transition in China must be interpreted through the lens of a unique and unprecedented juxtaposition of socialism and the market economy, which is leading to distinctive patterns of Chinese urbanization. Richly illustrated with maps, diagrams and in-depth case studies, this book will be an invaluable resource to students and scholars of urban economics and policy, geography, and the development of China.
📒Crooked Paths To Allotment ✍ C. Joseph Genetin-Pilawa
✏Crooked Paths to Allotment Book Summary : Standard narratives of Native American history view the nineteenth century in terms of steadily declining Indigenous sovereignty, from removal of southeastern tribes to the 1887 General Allotment Act. In Crooked Paths to Allotment, C. Joseph Genetin-Pilawa complicates these narratives, focusing on political moments when viable alternatives to federal assimilation policies arose. In these moments, Native American reformers and their white allies challenged coercive practices and offered visions for policies that might have allowed Indigenous nations to adapt at their own pace and on their own terms. Examining the contests over Indian policy from Reconstruction through the Gilded Age, Genetin-Pilawa reveals the contingent state of American settler colonialism. Genetin-Pilawa focuses on reformers and activists, including Tonawanda Seneca Ely S. Parker and Council Fire editor Thomas A. Bland, whose contributions to Indian policy debates have heretofore been underappreciated. He reveals how these men and their allies opposed such policies as forced land allotment, the elimination of traditional cultural practices, mandatory boarding school education for Indian youth, and compulsory participation in the market economy. Although the mainstream supporters of assimilation successfully repressed these efforts, the ideas and policy frameworks they espoused established a tradition of dissent against disruptive colonial governance.