Markov Models For Handwriting Recognition
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📒Markov Models For Handwriting Recognition ✍ Thomas Plötz
✏Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition Book Summary : Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden Markov models and Markov-chain or n-gram models. First, the text introduces the typical architecture of a Markov model-based handwriting recognition system, and familiarizes the reader with the essential theoretical concepts behind Markovian models. Then, the text reviews proposed solutions in the literature for open problems in applying Markov model-based approaches to automatic handwriting recognition.
📒Markov Models For Pattern Recognition ✍ Gernot A. Fink
✏Markov Models for Pattern Recognition Book Summary : This thoroughly revised and expanded new edition now includes a more detailed treatment of the EM algorithm, a description of an efficient approximate Viterbi-training procedure, a theoretical derivation of the perplexity measure and coverage of multi-pass decoding based on n-best search. Supporting the discussion of the theoretical foundations of Markov modeling, special emphasis is also placed on practical algorithmic solutions. Features: introduces the formal framework for Markov models; covers the robust handling of probability quantities; presents methods for the configuration of hidden Markov models for specific application areas; describes important methods for efficient processing of Markov models, and the adaptation of the models to different tasks; examines algorithms for searching within the complex solution spaces that result from the joint application of Markov chain and hidden Markov models; reviews key applications of Markov models.
📒Fundamentals In Handwriting Recognition ✍ Sebastiano Impedovo
✏Fundamentals in Handwriting Recognition Book Summary : For many years researchers in the field of Handwriting Recognition were considered to be working in an area of minor importance in Pattern Recog nition. They had only the possibility to present the results of their research at general conferences such as the ICPR or publish their papers in journals such as some of the IEEE series or PR, together with many other papers generally oriented to the more promising areas of Pattern Recognition. The series of International Workshops on Frontiers in Handwriting Recog nition and International Conferences on Document Analysis and Recognition together with some special issues of several journals are now fulfilling the expectations of many researchers who have been attracted to this area and are involving many academic institutions and industrial companies. But in order to facilitate the introduction of young researchers into the field and give them both theoretically and practically powerful tools, it is now time that some high level teaching schools in handwriting recognition be held, also in order to unite the foundations of the field. Therefore it was my pleasure to organize the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamentals in Handwriting Recognition that had its origin in many exchanges among the most important specialists in the field, during the International Workshops on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition.
📒Hidden Markov Models ✍ Horst Bunke
✏Hidden Markov Models Book Summary : Hidden Markov models (HMMs) originally emerged in the domain of speech recognition. In recent years, they have attracted growing interest in the area of computer vision as well. This book is a collection of articles on new developments in the theory of HMMs and their application in computer vision. It addresses topics such as handwriting recognition, shape recognition, face and gesture recognition, tracking, and image database retrieval. This book is also published as a special issue of the International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence (February 2001). Contents: Introduction: A Simple Complex in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (B H Juang)An Introduction to Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Networks (Z Chahramani)Multi-Lingual Machine Printed OCR (P Natarajan et al.)Using a Statistical Language Model to Improve the Performance of an HMM-Based Cursive Handwriting Recognition System (U-V Marti & H Bunke)A 2-D HMM Method for Offline Handwritten Character Recognition (H-S Park et al.)Data-Driven Design of HMM Topology for Online Handwriting Recognition (J J Lee et al.)Hidden Markov Models for Modeling and Recognizing Gesture Under Variation (A D Wilson & A F Bobick)Sentence Lipreading Using Hidden Markov Model with Integrated Grammar (K Yu et al.)Tracking and Surveillance in Wide-Area Spatial Environments Using the Abstract Hidden Markov Model (H H Bui et al.)Shape Tracking and Production Using Hidden Markov Models (T Caelli et al.)An Integrated Approach to Shape and Color-Based Image Retrieval of Rotated Objects Using Hidden Markov Models (S Müller et al.) Readership: Graduate students of computer science, electrical engineering and related fields, as well as researchers at academic and industrial institutions. Keywords:Hidden Markov Models;Gesture Recognitoin;Bayesian Networks;Optical Character Recognition;Handwriting Character Recognition;Cartography;Shape Extraction;Image Feature Extraction.
📒Advances In Handwriting Recognition ✍ Seong-Whan Lee
✏Advances in Handwriting Recognition Book Summary : Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition contains selected key papers from the 6th International Workshop on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition (IWFHR '98), held in Taejon, Korea from 12 to 14, August 1998. Most of the papers have been expanded or extensively revised to include helpful discussions, suggestions or comments made during the workshop.
📒Hidden Markov Model ✍ Frederic P. Miller
✏Hidden Markov Model Book Summary : Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a statistical model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved state. An HMM can be considered as the simplest dynamic Bayesian network. In a regular Markov model, the state is directly visible to the observer, and therefore the state transition probabilities are the only parameters. In a hidden Markov model, the state is not directly visible, but output dependent on the state is visible. Each state has a probability distribution over the possible output tokens. Therefore the sequence of tokens generated by a HMM gives some information about the sequence of states. Note that the adjective 'hidden' refers to the state sequence through which the model passes, not to the parameters of the model; even if the model parameters are known exactly, the model is still 'hidden'. Hidden Markov models are especially known for their application in temporal pattern recognition such as speech, handwriting, gesture recognition, part-of-speech tagging, musical score following, partial discharges and bioinformatics.
📒Guide To Ocr For Arabic Scripts ✍ Volker Märgner
✏Guide to OCR for Arabic Scripts Book Summary : This Guide to OCR for Arabic Scripts is the first book of its kind, specifically devoted to this emerging field. Topics and features: contains contributions from the leading researchers in the field; with a Foreword by Professor Bente Maegaard of the University of Copenhagen; presents a detailed overview of Arabic character recognition technology, covering a range of different aspects of pre-processing and feature extraction; reviews a broad selection of varying approaches, including HMM-based methods and a recognition system based on multidimensional recurrent neural networks; examines the evaluation of Arabic script recognition systems, discussing data collection and annotation, benchmarking strategies, and handwriting recognition competitions; describes numerous applications of Arabic script recognition technology, from historical Arabic manuscripts to online Arabic recognition.
📒Handwritten Word Recognition Using Hidden Markov Models ✍ Mou-Yen Chen
✏Handwritten Word Recognition Using Hidden Markov Models Book Summary :
📒Hybrid Methods In Pattern Recognition ✍ Horst Bunke
✏Hybrid Methods in Pattern Recognition Book Summary : The field of pattern recognition has seen enormous progress since its beginnings almost 50 years ago. A large number of different approaches have been proposed. Hybrid methods aim at combining the advantages of different paradigms within a single system. Hybrid Methods in Pattern Recognition is a collection of articles describing recent progress in this emerging field. It covers topics such as the combination of neural nets with fuzzy systems or hidden Markov models, neural networks for the processing of symbolic data structures, hybrid methods in data mining, the combination of symbolic and subsymbolic learning, and so on. Also included is recent work on multiple classifier systems. Furthermore, the book deals with applications in on-line and off-line handwriting recognition, remotely sensed image interpretation, fingerprint identification, and automatic text categorization.
📒Handwriting Recognition ✍ Zhi-Qiang Liu
✏Handwriting Recognition Book Summary : Over the last few decades, research on handwriting recognition has made impressive progress. The research and development on handwritten word recognition are to a large degree motivated by many application areas, such as automated postal address and code reading, data acquisition in banks, text-voice conversion, security, etc. As the prices of scanners, com puters and handwriting-input devices are falling steadily, we have seen an increased demand for handwriting recognition systems and software pack ages. Some commercial handwriting recognition systems are now available in the market. Current commercial systems have an impressive performance in recognizing machine-printed characters and neatly written texts. For in stance, High-Tech Solutions in Israel has developed several products for container ID recognition, car license plate recognition and package label recognition. Xerox in the U. S. has developed TextBridge for converting hardcopy documents into electronic document files. In spite of the impressive progress, there is still a significant perfor mance gap between the human and the machine in recognizing off-line unconstrained handwritten characters and words. The difficulties encoun tered in recognizing unconstrained handwritings are mainly caused by huge variations in writing styles and the overlapping and the interconnection of neighboring characters. Furthermore, many applications demand very high recognition accuracy and reliability. For example, in the banking sector, although automated teller machines (ATMs) and networked banking sys tems are now widely available, many transactions are still carried out in the form of cheques.