Ipscs From Diverse Species

📒Ipscs From Diverse Species ✍ ALEXANDER BIRBRAIR

Ipscs From Diverse Species Book PDF
✏Book Title : iPSCs from Diverse Species
✏Author : ALEXANDER BIRBRAIR
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2020-10-12
✏Pages : 272
✏ISBN : 9780323851855
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏iPSCs from Diverse Species Book Summary : The series Advances in Stem Cell Biology is a timely and expansive collection of comprehensive information and new discoveries in the field of stem cell biology. iPSCs from Diverse Species, Volume 2 addresses how induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from different species. The volume teaches the reader about modern state-of-the-art methodologies to derive iPSCs from distinct species. This volume will cover how to derive iPSCs from species like nonhuman primates, horses, dogs, pigs, rats, rabbits, and others. It also discusses the importance of iPSCs in species conservation. Detailed description on methods used to obtain iPSCs from humans and other species expands the knowledge and understanding of stem cell biology and provides a potent tool to model diseases. The volume is written for researchers and scientists in stem cell biology, and regenerative medicine and is contributed by world-renowned authors in the field. Provides overview of the fast-moving field of stem cell biology and function, regenerative medicine and therapeutics Covers the following signaling pathways: notch, hedgehog, TGFβ, PAR2 and more Contributions from stem cell leaders around the world

Epigenetics And Regeneration Book PDF
✏Book Title : Epigenetics and Regeneration
✏Author :
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2019-05-24
✏Pages : 541
✏ISBN : 9780128148808
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Epigenetics and Regeneration Book Summary : Epigenetics and Regeneration compiles the first foundational reference on epigenetic mechanisms governing tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as pathways to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice and translational science. In this book, life science researchers, clinicians, and students will discover an interdisciplinary resource bringing together common themes in the field, background overviews, research methods, recent advances, and opportunities for drug discovery. Throughout this volume, special attention is paid to pre-clinical and first clinical studies aimed at increasing the regenerative potential of damaged tissues by epigenetic drugs, as well as innovative, discipline spanning strategies to enhance cell reprogramming. As an all-inclusive, evidence-based volume, Epigenetics and Regeneration will stimulate discussion and boost new research in this fascinating and impactful area of translational epigenetics. Provides a foundational overview of epigenetics in regenerative medicine Examines epigenetic components of tissue regeneration for a variety of organ systems and tissue types, as well as current attempts to employ these mechanisms in clinical practice Offers researchers, students, clinicians, and pharmacologists the tools they need to enhance tissue development, repair, homeostasis, and regeneration and explore new epigenetic therapeutic pathways Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers and clinicians in the fields of epigenetics and regenerative medicine

The Sage Encyclopedia Of Stem Cell Research Book PDF
✏Book Title : The SAGE Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research
✏Author : Eric E. Bouhassira
✏Publisher : SAGE Publications
✏Release Date : 2015-06-15
✏Pages : 1552
✏ISBN : 9781483347677
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The SAGE Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research Book Summary : The SAGE Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research, Second Edition is filled with new procedures and exciting medical breakthroughs, including executive orders from the Obama administration reversing barriers to research imposed under the Bush administration, court rulings impacting NIH funding of research based on human embryonic stem cells, edicts by the Papacy and other religious leaders, and the first success in cloning human stem cells. Stem cell biology is clearly fueling excitement and potential in traditional areas of developmental biology and in the field of regenerative medicine, where they are believed to hold much promise in addressing any number of intractable medical conditions. This updated second edition encyclopedia will expand on information that was given in the first edition and present more than 270 new and updated articles that explore major topics in ways accessible to nonscientists, thus bringing readers up-to-date with where stem cell biology stands today, including new and evolving ethical, religious, legal, social, and political perspectives. This second edition reference work will serve as a universal resource for all public and academic libraries. It is an excellent foundation for anyone who is interested in the subject area of stem cell biology. Key Features: Reader’s Guide, Further Readings, Cross References, Chronology, Resource Guide, Index A Glossary will elucidate stem cell terminology for the nonscientist Statistics and selected reprints of major journal articles that pertain to milestones achieved in stem cell research Documents from Congressional Hearings on stem cells and cloning Reports to the President’s Council on Bioethics, and more

Reproductive Sciences In Animal Conservation Book PDF
✏Book Title : Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation
✏Author : William V. Holt
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2014-08-04
✏Pages : 533
✏ISBN : 9781493908202
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation Book Summary : Reproductive biology is more than the development of techniques for helping with too little or too much breeding. While some of the relevant techniques are useful for individual species, technical developments have to be backed up by thorough biological understanding of the background behind the problems. This book is therefore threefold; (1) it provides a snapshot of the state of the art in terms of species-specific reproductive technologies, whether for individual animals or whole taxonomic groups; (2) it sets the reproductive problems in context and emphasizes the links between animal-based problems and the wider world, e.g. reproductive fitness and (3) it looks forward and presents realistic assessments of how effective some of the more recently developed techniques in reproductive technology might be at combating extinctions. This is a wide-ranging book that will be relevant to anyone involved in reproductive biology or in species conservation and provides provide them some useful perspectives about the real utility of current and emerging technologies. It has contributions from experts in reproduction and related fields.

📒Transgenic Animal Technology ✍ Carl A. Pinkert

Transgenic Animal Technology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Transgenic Animal Technology
✏Author : Carl A. Pinkert
✏Publisher : Newnes
✏Release Date : 2014-06-17
✏Pages : 714
✏ISBN : 9780124095366
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Transgenic Animal Technology Book Summary : Transgenic animal technologies and the ability to introduce functional genes into animals have revolutionized our ability to address complex biomedical and biological questions. This well-illustrated handbook covers the technical aspects of gene transfer — from molecular methods to whole animal considerations — for important laboratory and domestic animal species. It describes methodologies as employed by leading laboratories and is a key resource for researchers, as well as a tool for training technicians and students. This second edition incorporates updates on a variety of genetic engineering technologies ranging from microinjection and ES cell transfer to nuclear transfer in a broad range of animal modeling systems. Contains a comprehensive collection of transgenic animal and gene transfer methods Discusses background and introduction to techniques and animal systems Teaches practical step-by-step protocols Fully revised with updates to reflect state-of-the-art technology and associated changes to date

Diversity In The Neuronal Machine Book PDF
✏Book Title : Diversity in the Neuronal Machine
✏Author : Ivan Soltesz
✏Publisher : Oxford University Press
✏Release Date : 2006
✏Pages : 238
✏ISBN : 9780195177015
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Diversity in the Neuronal Machine Book Summary : Aims to provide insights into the striking degree of cellular diversity found in the interneuronal microcircuits in the brain's neocortex and hippocampus. This book elaborates on different ideas about interneuronal diversity that rest upon theoretical and experimental results and is useful for neuroscientists.

Knobil And Neill S Physiology Of Reproduction Book PDF
✏Book Title : Knobil and Neill s Physiology of Reproduction
✏Author : Tony M. Plant
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2014-11-15
✏Pages : 2684
✏ISBN : 9780123977694
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Knobil and Neill s Physiology of Reproduction Book Summary : The Fourth Edition of Knobil & Neill continues to serve as a reference aid for research, to provide the historical context to current research, and most importantly as an aid for graduate teaching on a broad range of topics in human and comparative reproduction. In the decade since the publication of the last edition, the study of reproductive physiology has undergone monumental changes. Chief among these advances are in the areas of stem cell development, signaling pathways, the role of inflammation in the regulatory processes in the various tissues, and the integration of new animal models which have led to a greater understanding of human disease. The new edition synthesizes all of this new information at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels of organization and present modern physiology a more understandable and comparative context. The Fourth Edition has been extensively revised, reflecting new fundamental advancements in this rapidly advancing field. Provides a common language for researchers across the fields of physiology, endocrinology, and biology to discuss their understanding of reproduction. Saves academic researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest details on reproductive physiology, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles.

Transgenic Models Of Cardiac Arrhythmias And Sudden Death Book PDF
✏Book Title : Transgenic models of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death
✏Author : Carol Ann Remme
✏Publisher : Frontiers E-books
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889191376
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Transgenic models of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death Book Summary :

Philosophy Of Stem Cell Biology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Philosophy of Stem Cell Biology
✏Author : M. Fagan
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2013-01-21
✏Pages : 274
✏ISBN : 9781137296023
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Philosophy of Stem Cell Biology Book Summary : This examination of stem cell biology from a philosophy of science perspective clarifies the field's central concept, the stem cell, as well as its aims, methods, models, explanations and evidential challenges. Relations to systems biology and clinical medicine are also discussed.

Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America Book PDF
✏Book Title : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
✏Author : National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2000
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015048231594
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Book Summary :

Stem Cell Maintenance In Naked Mole Rats And Other Longevity Mechanisms In Rodents Book PDF
✏Book Title : Stem Cell Maintenance in Naked Mole Rats and Other Longevity Mechanisms in Rodents
✏Author : Zhonghe Ke
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages : 183
✏ISBN : OCLC:1102360200
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Stem Cell Maintenance in Naked Mole Rats and Other Longevity Mechanisms in Rodents Book Summary : "This thesis investigated the stem cell biology of the longest-lived rodent the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber, NMR), compared to the short-lived laboratory mouse. The NMR is one of only two eusocial mammals, shows extreme longevity with a maximum lifespan of 32 years and negligible age-associated degeneration. During aging, stem cells play a pivotal role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by replenishing damaged and dead cells with newly differentiated functional cells. Age-associated stem cell dysfunction is a driving force of aging. What stem cell capacity the NMR has and how the NMR maintains their stem cell pool is unknown. In this thesis, I comparatively studied the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) properties in the NMR and the mouse. I employed BrdU label retention assays to label HSC and track the HSC turnover. I was able to show that the BrdU label-retaining cells were responsive to fluorouracil induced bone marrow injury. I have discovered that the NMR HSC localizes to a niche with extremely high levels of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA), displays slow turnover and extreme quiescence, compared to the mouse HSC. I have demonstrated that the niche HA levels reversely relate to HSC reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels. In addition, overexpressing NMR HAS2 in mice reduces ROS in the HSC and expands the HSC pool by about 3-fold. I have also shown the inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-MU impaired hematopoiesis in NMRs. With these findings, I propose a model of HSC maintenance that highlights the key role of niche HA in maintaining the quiescent HSC pool. Additionally, I describe the NMR iPSC reprogramming done with extensive collaboration with Dr. Li Tan. We have found the NMR fibroblasts are resistant to both the mouse and the NMR defined factors induced reprogramming, either in primed or nav̐e culture conditions. We have screened factors enhancing reprogramming and found the large T antigen drastically increased iPSC reprogramming efficiency. We have found that the NMR fibroblasts have a more repressive Rb signal pathway and large T induces massive opening of more closed promoter regions in the NMR, compared to the mouse. These results suggest that NMR displays a more stable epigenome that resists iPSC reprogramming. In another study that I collaborated with Dr. Jorge Azpurua, we have discovered that the NMR shows about 10 times higher translation fidelity than the mouse. However, whether the translation fidelity correlates with species maximum lifespan is unknown. Thus, I examined translation fidelity in 17 rodent species with diverse maximum lifespans. I have found that the fidelity at the first and second codon positions strongly correlates with species maximum lifespan, and that correlation remains significant after phylogenetic correction. This finding suggests that translation fidelity plays a novel role in longevity. Lastly, I had been managing the NMR colonies during my study and developed strategies to improve the husbandry and breeding of captive NMR colonies. As breeding and keeping NMRs in captivity is challenging to researchers, the slow breeding and low survival of NMRs under laboratory condition limits the NMR research. I have optimized the colony setting which allows NMR colonies to settle down more rapidly and established different chambers for different functions. I have found that pairing young NMRs, but not younger than 2 years old, could result in higher successful rate of establishing new colonies. I have also successfully cross-fostered NMR pups in a foreign colony. All of these strategies will help researchers struggling with breeding NMRs in captivity."--Pages ix-x.

📒Stem Cells ✍ Robert A. Meyers

Stem Cells Book PDF
✏Book Title : Stem Cells
✏Author : Robert A. Meyers
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2013-06-03
✏Pages : 778
✏ISBN : 9783527668526
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Stem Cells Book Summary : This third in the Current Topics in Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine Series contains a careful selection of new and updated, high-quality articles from the well-known Meyer's Encyclopedia, describing new perspectives in stem cell research. The 26 chapters are divided into four sections: Basic Biology, Stem Cells and Disease, Stem Cell Therapy Approaches, and Laboratory Methods, with the authors chosen from among the leaders in their respective fields. This volume represents an essential guide for students and researchers seeking an overview of the field.

Entomology Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Entomology Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1999
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015045832691
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Entomology Abstracts Book Summary :

Csa Neurosciences Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : CSA Neurosciences Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1992
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015027085169
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏CSA Neurosciences Abstracts Book Summary :

Advances In Neurology Book PDF
✏Book Title : Advances in Neurology
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1973
✏Pages : 1069
✏ISBN : UCLA:L0079474912
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Advances in Neurology Book Summary :

📒Society For Neuroscience Abstracts ✍ Society for Neuroscience. Annual Meeting

Society For Neuroscience Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Society for Neuroscience Abstracts
✏Author : Society for Neuroscience. Annual Meeting
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1996
✏Pages : 2475
✏ISBN : 0916110508
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Society for Neuroscience Abstracts Book Summary :

Abstract Book Book PDF
✏Book Title : Abstract Book
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2000
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015053967405
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Abstract Book Book Summary :

New York Court Of Appeals Records And Briefs  Book PDF
✏Book Title : New York Court of Appeals Records and Briefs
✏Author : New York (State).
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : LLMC:NYA80Z0OWD0P
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏New York Court of Appeals Records and Briefs Book Summary :

New Scientist Book PDF
✏Book Title : New Scientist
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1986
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015038787464
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏New Scientist Book Summary :

American Birds Book PDF
✏Book Title : American Birds
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1988
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UVA:X001756244
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏American Birds Book Summary :

Field Museum Of Natural History Bulletin Book PDF
✏Book Title : Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1979
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105008041274
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin Book Summary :

📒Rapport De La Quinzi Session Du Comit Scientifique Consultatif ✍ General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Scientific Advisory Committee. Session

Rapport De La Quinzi Session Du Comit Scientifique Consultatif Book PDF
✏Book Title : Rapport de la Quinzi Session Du Comit Scientifique Consultatif
✏Author : General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Scientific Advisory Committee. Session
✏Publisher : Fao Fisheries and Aquaculture
✏Release Date : 2014
✏Pages : 228
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822039200035
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Rapport de la Quinzi Session Du Comit Scientifique Consultatif Book Summary : The scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) held its fifteen session in Rome, from 8 to 11 April 2013. The Committee reviewed the issues addressed at the eight technical meetings, including the four sessions of its subcommittees, and at the workshops held during the 2012-2013 intersession.

📒Society For Neuroscience Abstracts ✍ Society for Neuroscience. Meeting

Society For Neuroscience Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Society for Neuroscience Abstracts
✏Author : Society for Neuroscience. Meeting
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1997
✏Pages : 1440
✏ISBN : 0916110532
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Society for Neuroscience Abstracts Book Summary :

Government Reports Announcements Index Book PDF
✏Book Title : Government Reports Announcements Index
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1991
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015022363660
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Government Reports Announcements Index Book Summary :

Dissertation Abstracts International Book PDF
✏Book Title : Dissertation Abstracts International
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1998
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105022081199
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Dissertation Abstracts International Book Summary :

Issues In General Science And Scientific Theory And Method 2011 Edition Book PDF
✏Book Title : Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method 2011 Edition
✏Author :
✏Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
✏Release Date : 2012-01-09
✏Pages : 3278
✏ISBN : 9781464963476
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method 2011 Edition Book Summary : Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method. The editors have built Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

📒Farming The Edge Of The Sea ✍ Edwin S. Iversen

Farming The Edge Of The Sea Book PDF
✏Book Title : Farming the Edge of the Sea
✏Author : Edwin S. Iversen
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1976
✏Pages : 436
✏ISBN : UVA:35007004330035
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Farming the Edge of the Sea Book Summary :

Neuroscience Letters Book PDF
✏Book Title : Neuroscience Letters
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1998
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UCLA:L0087564647
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Neuroscience Letters Book Summary :

📒Williams Hematology 9e ✍ Kenneth Kaushansky

Williams Hematology 9e Book PDF
✏Book Title : Williams Hematology 9E
✏Author : Kenneth Kaushansky
✏Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
✏Release Date : 2015-12-23
✏Pages : 2528
✏ISBN : 9780071833011
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Williams Hematology 9E Book Summary : Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. The world's most highly regarded reference text on the mechanisms and clinical management of blood diseases A Doody's Core Title for 2019! Edition after edition, Williams Hematology has guided generations of clinicians, biomedical researchers, and trainees in many disciplines through the origins, pathophysiological mechanisms, and management of benign and malignant disorders of blood cells and coagulation proteins. It is acknowledged worldwide as the leading hematology resource, with editors who are internationally regarded for their research and clinical achievements and authors who are luminaries in their fields. The Ninth Edition of Williams Hematology is extensively revised to reflect the latest advancements in basic science, translational pathophysiology, and clinical practice. In addition to completely new chapters, it features a full-color presentation that includes 700 photographs, 300 of which are new to this edition, and 475 illustrations. Recognizing that blood and marrow cell morphology is at the heart of diagnostic hematology, informative color images of the relevant disease topics are conveniently integrated into each chapter, allowing easy access to illustrations of cell morphology important to diagnosis. Comprehensive in its depth and breath, this go-to textbook begins with the evaluation of the patient and progresses to the molecular and cellular underpinnings of normal and pathological hematology. Subsequent sections present disorders of the erythrocyte, granulocytes and monocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells, malignant myeloid and lymphoid diseases, hemostasis and thrombosis, and transfusion medicine.

Principles Of Tissue Engineering Book PDF
✏Book Title : Principles of Tissue Engineering
✏Author : Robert Lanza
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2013-10-17
✏Pages : 1936
✏ISBN : 9780123983701
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Principles of Tissue Engineering Book Summary : Now in its fourth edition, Principles of Tissue Engineering has been the definite resource in the field of tissue engineering for more than a decade. The fourth edition provides an update on this rapidly progressing field, combining the prerequisites for a general understanding of tissue growth and development, the tools and theoretical information needed to design tissues and organs, as well as a presentation by the world’s experts of what is currently known about each specific organ system. As in previous editions, this book creates a comprehensive work that strikes a balance among the diversity of subjects that are related to tissue engineering, including biology, chemistry, material science, and engineering, among others, while also emphasizing those research areas that are likely to be of clinical value in the future. This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, stem cell niches, and blood components from stem cells. This research has already produced applications in disease modeling, toxicity testing, drug development, and clinical therapies. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies –such as brain-machine interfaces for controlling bionics and neuroprostheses– is complemented by a series of new and updated chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering, as well as a new section on the application of tissue-engineering techniques for food production. The result is a comprehensive textbook that will be useful to students and experts alike. Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves Offers expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems Full-color presentation throughout