Innate Immunity

Target Pattern Recognition In Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity
✏Author : Uday Kishore
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2010-01-01
✏Pages : 202
✏ISBN : 144190901X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity Book Summary : Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events. The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids—and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q—to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms—to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells. In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system—and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms.

📒Innate Immunity ✍ Yves Carton

Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity
✏Author : Yves Carton
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2019-11-27
✏Pages : 324
✏ISBN : 9780128218105
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity Book Summary : Innate immunity is a new branch of immunology, confirmed by three Nobel Prize winners in 2011. It is the first line of defense against pathogens and is in a way the preliminary step of adaptive immunity which occurs later, and only present in vertebrates. This book examines the way in which innate immunity was discovered in invertebrates. As a starting point, it looks at the work of Louis Pasteur on silkworm disease and the findings of Ilya Metchnikov, discoverer of phagocytosis. It also investigates André Paillot, who in 1920 demonstrated the existence of humoral immunity in insects, unrelated to the type of immunity that was initially thought to be present in all vertebrates. Finally, Innate Immunity shows how the group directed by Jules Hoffmann found strong similarities between the innate immunity response of insects and mammals. The discovery of a receptor protein in Drosophila, which is also found in humans, was what led to Jules Hoffmann being awarded the Nobel Prize in 2011. Presents the transformations experienced by the domains of innate immunity Shows the lineage of these results Bridges the gap between innate immunity of invertebrates and that of vertebrates

Trends In Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Trends in Innate Immunity
✏Author : Arne Egesten
✏Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
✏Release Date : 2008
✏Pages : 211
✏ISBN : 9783805585484
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Trends in Innate Immunity Book Summary : The last decade has witnessed the delineation of innate immunity - a new area which has revolutionized our understanding of host-parasite interactions and their impact on defense mechanisms in infectious and noninfectious diseases. This volume of the book series 'Contributions to Microbiology' provides an update of the current knowledge of this expanding field of research and highlights some of its most important aspects. In eleven state-of-the-art articles, eminent international experts in the field address topics such as the innate immune system in mammals and insects, microbial protein ligands, antimicrobial peptides, complement, antibacterial chemokines, the role of neutrophils and monocytes, oxidative innate immune defenses and the effect of aging on innate immunity. The book will be a valuable resource for microbiologists, immunologists, students, scientists of other related disciplines, and clinicians with an interest in infectious or immunological diseases.

📒Innate Immunity ✍ R. Alan B. Ezekowitz

Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity
✏Author : R. Alan B. Ezekowitz
✏Publisher : Humana Press
✏Release Date : 2002-12-06
✏Pages : 410
✏ISBN : 1588290468
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity Book Summary : The concept of innate immunity refers to the first-line host defense that serves to limit infection in the early hours after exposure to microorganisms. Recent data have highlighted similarities between pathogen recognition, signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms of innate immunity in Drosophila and mammals, pointing to a common ancestry of these defenses. In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to playa key role in stimulating the subsequent clonal response of adaptive immunity. Recent exciting information has determined that the templates that are laid down in primitive life forms, like flowering plants and insects, form the basic principles of first line host defense that are conserved in mammalian systems. The next frontier in the field is to understand the dynamic adaptive changes that occur as a result of the inter play between host defenses and infectious agents. One emerging theme is that microorganisms are constantly seeking ways to co-opt host defenses. On the other hand, host defense to infection is mediated by the coordinate action of pattern recognition molecules and receptors that, in mammals, are important and probably necessary antecedents to the development of an adaptive immune response. Innate Immunity aims to explore the intersection between host pathogen interactions across an evolutionary spectrum that will inform our understanding of the dynamic interplay between infectious agents and host defense in man.

From Innate Immunity To Immunological Memory Book PDF
✏Book Title : From Innate Immunity to Immunological Memory
✏Author : Bali Pulendran
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2006-10-05
✏Pages : 184
✏ISBN : 9783540326366
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏From Innate Immunity to Immunological Memory Book Summary : The ability to remember an antigenic encounter for several decades, even for a life time, is one of the fundamental properties of the immune system. This book assembles a collection of essays from leading experts that span the entire spectrum of immunological research, from understanding the molecular mechanisms of innate immune recognition, to dendritic cell function, to the generation and maintenance of antigen-specific B and T-cell responses.

📒Innate Immunity ✍ Jonathan Ewbank

Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity
✏Author : Jonathan Ewbank
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2008
✏Pages : 458
✏ISBN : 9781588297464
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity Book Summary : Immunologists today are interested in all of the diverse cell-types involved in host defense and have a deeper appreciation of the importance of innate immune mechanisms as a first line of protection against pathogens. This volume thus discusses the isolation and functional characterization of cells involved in innate immunity in mouse and man, including mast cells and eosinophils. Other focuses include natural killer cells, methods in statistics, in vivo imaging, genome engineering, and mutagenesis and culture that are adapted to the study of innate immunity in these hosts. These are complemented with a series of chapters dealing with alternative models: plants, worms, mosquitoes, flies, and fish. Together, these approaches and models are being used to dissect the complex interplay between hosts and pathogens and contribute to developing strategies to help fight infection. With chapters written by experts on the cutting-edge of this technology, Innate Immunity is an essential reference for immunologists, histologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists.

Toll Like Receptors Tlrs And Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Toll Like Receptors TLRs and Innate Immunity
✏Author : Stefan Bauer
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2007-12-11
✏Pages : 240
✏ISBN : 3540721673
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Toll Like Receptors TLRs and Innate Immunity Book Summary : Overall recent research on TLRs has led to tremendous increase in our understanding of early steps in pathogen recognition and will presumably lead to potent TLR targeting therapeutics in the future. This book reviews and highlights our recent understanding on the function and ligands of TLRs as well as their role in autoimmunity, dendritic cell activation and target structures for therapeutic intervention.

Nucleic Acids In Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Nucleic Acids in Innate Immunity
✏Author : Ken J. Ishii
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2008-05-22
✏Pages : 304
✏ISBN : 1420068261
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Nucleic Acids in Innate Immunity Book Summary : Until recently, innate immunity was regarded as a relatively nonspecific system designed to engulf and destroy pathogens. However, new studies show that the innate immune system is highly developed in its ability to discriminate between self and foreign entities. Understanding this mechanism can lead to therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of this previously unexploited branch of the immune system. Drawing on the research of leading experts, Nucleic Acids in Innate Immunity provides insight in this new area of immunology. The book begins by explaining the roles of nucleic acids in immunity, describing the mechanism of discrimination based on pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLR), and RIG-I-like receptors (RLR). Chapters discuss how these PRRs recognize and respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by activating specific signaling pathways. The second section focuses on the therapeutic applications of immunomodulatory DNA by manipulating released pathogenic nucleic acids as immune system stimulants. The book introduces novel therapeutics developed to prevent or treat infectious diseases, allergic disorders, and cancer, as well as clearing unnecessary or abnormal host molecules. The final section addresses how the immune system discriminates self and non-self RNA. Recent findings that host (self) nucleic acids are not inert in the immune system beg the question of exactly what elements within DNA or RNA are recognized by the innate immune system. Contributions review recent advances to understand innate immune recognition of nucleic acids and describe the resulting immune modulation. Providing a comprehensive review of nucleic acid recognition and regulation by the innate immune system, this seminal work reveals new directions for future research in immune modulation.

Modulation Of Host Gene Expression And Innate Immunity By Viruses Book PDF
✏Book Title : Modulation of Host Gene Expression and Innate Immunity by Viruses
✏Author : Peter Palese
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2006-07-11
✏Pages : 304
✏ISBN : 9781402032424
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Modulation of Host Gene Expression and Innate Immunity by Viruses Book Summary : This book is an excellent, up-to-date reference on a relatively young area of research in which virology, cellular biology and molecular pathogenesis govern the principles of coinvestigation. Thus, the book will be of great interest to virologists, molecular immunologists and biologists, and biochemists but also to clinical pharmacologists in the long-term search for new antiviral agents. Ulrich Desselberger, Gif-sur-Yvette/Cambridge. Infection of a naïve (non-immune) host with a virus elicits an immediate response which results in a cascade of changes in the host, including an interferon response (innate immunity). The outcome of this interaction is influenced by the genes of the virus as well as the genes of the host. Interestingly, different viruses do it in different ways. Not only is there a plethora of mechanisms used by the invading organisms, but the host has also evolved a great variety of redundant and robust countermeasures. This interplay of host and virus represents one of the most significant frontiers in biology today. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved will arm us with better strategies to deal with viruses, including emerging pathogens and potential bioterrorism agents. This book is sure to benefit students, scientists, and physicians working in the areas of virology, immunology, microbiology, and infectious diseases. Pharmaceutical industry professionals will also find interest in this illuminating look into virus/host interactions.

Mechanisms Of Lymphocyte Activation And Immune Regulation X Book PDF
✏Book Title : Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation X
✏Author : Sudhir Gupta
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2007-03-20
✏Pages : 163
✏ISBN : 9780387241807
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation X Book Summary : This volume is edited by Dr. Sudhir Gupta, internationally recognized expert in Immunology, Professor of Medicine, Pathology, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. Topics include toll receptors, dendritic cells, NK cells, and complement receptors.

Paradoxical Changes In Innate Immunity In Aging Recent Progress And New Directions Book PDF
✏Book Title : Paradoxical Changes in Innate Immunity in Aging Recent Progress and New Directions
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2015
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1053710768
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Paradoxical Changes in Innate Immunity in Aging Recent Progress and New Directions Book Summary : Abstract : Review on the decline of immune response with age. Abstract : Immunosenescence, describing alterations, including decline of immune responses with age, is comprised of inappropriate elevations, decreases, and dysregulated immune responses, leading to more severe consequences of bacterial and viral infections and reduced responses to vaccination. In adaptive immunity, these changes include increased proportions of antigen‐experienced B and T cells at the cost of naïve cell populations. Innate immune changes in aging are complex in spanning multiple cell types, activation states, and tissue context. Innate immune responses are dampened in aging, yet there is also a paradoxical increase in certain signaling pathways and cytokine levels. Here, we review recent progress and highlight novel directions for expected advances that can lead the aging field to a new era of discovery that will embrace the complexity of aging in human populations.

📒Innate Immunity And The Eye ✍ Manfred Zierhut

Innate Immunity And The Eye Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity and the Eye
✏Author : Manfred Zierhut
✏Publisher : JP Medical Ltd
✏Release Date : 2013-04-30
✏Pages : 250
✏ISBN : 9789350903094
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity and the Eye Book Summary : The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that are the first line of defence against infection by other organisms. This book provides a comprehensive synopsis of eye diseases, their immunological mechanisms and the role of the immune cells and mediators. Beginning with an introduction to the role of the innate immune system, the following chapters discuss the different types of immune cells in the eye and their role in the etiopathogenesis of various diseases including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Edited by Manfred Zierhut, recognised expert from the University of Tuebingen Germany, this book is presented in an easy to read format, enabling practitioners to understand even the most sophisticated eye disorders from an immunological perspective. Key points Comprehensive synopsis of the role of the innate immune system in eye diseases Covers different types of immune cells Edited by internationally recognised specialist in Germany

Innate Immunity To Pulmonary Infection Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection
✏Author : Derek J. Chadwick
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2007-01-11
✏Pages : 238
✏ISBN : 9780470035382
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection Book Summary : Part of the prestigious Novartis Foundation series, this volume uniquely addresses the use of innate immunity to treat or prevent infectious diseases of the lung. Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection: Provides a comprehensive overview of pulmonary infectious diseases, including basic pathology, current and potential therapies, and detailed consideration of the innate biological resistance mechanisms in the lung Thoroughly examines the major topic of innate immunity in immunology, which is now seen as key to the pathogenesis of and vaccination strategies for infectious diseases Describes the genetic and environmental factors which determine the outcome of infection, such as latency of Tuberculosis, blood stream invasion from local infection, and local target tissue damage Covers the roles of cells such as neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells and of molecular components such as Toll-like receptors Discusses the clinical applications of the new knowledge regarding innate immunity and how this can be used in both treatment and prevention (vaccination) strategies Includes contributions from an international and interdisciplinary group of experts Innate Immunity to Pulmonary Infection is an essential resource for researchers in both industry and academia. It is of interest for all those interested in the disciplines of immunology, virology, biology, biotechnology and genetics.

Plant Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Plant Innate Immunity
✏Author :
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2009-09-16
✏Pages : 400
✏ISBN : 0080888798
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Plant Innate Immunity Book Summary : Plant innate immunity is a collective term to describe a complex of interconnected mechanisms that plants use to withstand potential pathogens and herbivores. The last decade has seen a rapid advance in our understanding of the induction, signal transduction and expression of resistance responses to oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and insects. This volume aims at providing an overview of these processes and mechanisms. Edited by Jean-Claude Kader and Michel Delseny and supported by an international Editorial Board, Advances in Botanical Research publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics in plant sciences. * Multidisciplinary reviews written from a broad range of scientific perspectives * For over 40 years, series has enjoyed a reputation for excellence * Contributors internationally recognized authorities in their respective fields

Current Topics In Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Current Topics in Innate Immunity
✏Author : John D. Lambris
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2007-09-07
✏Pages : 432
✏ISBN : 9780387717678
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Current Topics in Innate Immunity Book Summary : In the post genomic era, understanding of the innate immune system is enriched by findings on the specificity of innate immune reactions as well as to novel functions that do not strictly correlate with immunological defense and surveillance, immune modulation or inflammation. This volume covers natural killer cells, mast cells, phagocytes, toll-like receptors, complement, host defense in plants and invertebrates, evasion strategies of microorganisms, pathophysiology, protein structures, design of therapeutics, and experimental approaches.

Innate Immunity Resistance And Disease Promoting Principles Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity Resistance and Disease Promoting Principles
✏Author : G. Hartmann
✏Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
✏Release Date : 2013-06-05
✏Pages : 138
✏ISBN : 9783318023480
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity Resistance and Disease Promoting Principles Book Summary : Our understanding of the complex innate immune response is increasing rapidly. Its role in the protection against viral or bacterial pathogens is essential for the survival of an organism. However, it is equally important to avoid unregulated inflammation because innate immune responses can cause or promote chronic autoinflammatory diseases such as gout, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes or certain aspects of the metabolic syndrome. In this book leading international experts in the field of innate immunity share their findings, define the ‚state of the art‘ in this field and evaluate how insight into the molecular basis of these diseases could help in the design of new therapies. A tremendous amount of work on the innate immune response has been done over the last fifteen years, culminating in the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine awarded for the discoveries of Toll genes in immunity in flies, membrane-bound Toll-like receptors in mammals, and dendritic cells as initiators of adaptive immunity.

Innate Immunity Programming And Memory In Resolving And Non Resolving Inflammation Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity Programming and Memory in Resolving and Non Resolving Inflammation
✏Author : Liwu Li
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2020-03-18
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889635825
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity Programming and Memory in Resolving and Non Resolving Inflammation Book Summary :

Pamp Signals In Plant Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : PAMP Signals in Plant Innate Immunity
✏Author : P. Vidhyasekaran
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-10-30
✏Pages : 442
✏ISBN : 9789400774261
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏PAMP Signals in Plant Innate Immunity Book Summary : Plant innate immunity is a potential surveillance system of plants and is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The immune system is a sleeping system in unstressed healthy plants and is activated on perception of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP; the pathogen’s signature) of invading pathogens. The PAMP alarm/danger signals are perceived by plant pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The plant immune system uses several second messengers to encode information generated by the PAMPs and deliver the information downstream of PRRs to proteins which decode/interpret signals and initiate defense gene expression. This book describes the most fascinating PAMP-PRR signaling complex and signal transduction systems. It also discusses the highly complex networks of signaling pathways involved in transmission of the signals to induce distinctly different defense-related genes to mount offence against pathogens.

Antimicrobial Peptides And Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antimicrobial Peptides and Innate Immunity
✏Author : Pieter S. Hiemstra
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-02-01
✏Pages : 384
✏ISBN : 9783034805414
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antimicrobial Peptides and Innate Immunity Book Summary : Antimicrobial peptides have been the subject of intense research in the past decades, and are now considered as an essential part of the defense system in bacteria, plants, animals and humans. his book provides an update on these effector molecules of the innate immune system both for researchers who are already actively involved in the area, and for those with a general interest in the topic. The book starts with an overview of the evolution of cysteine-containing antimicrobial peptides (including defensins), and the role of these peptides in host defense in plants and micro-organisms. The realization that antimicrobial peptides also display functions distinct from their direct antimicrobial action is the focus of the next chapters, and puts these peptides center stage in immunity and wound repair. Further chapters discuss the role of antimicrobial peptides in disease, by providing an overview of mechanisms in bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides and a discussion of their role in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis lung disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, the book shows how knowledge of the function of antimicrobial peptides and their regulation can be used to design new therapies for inflammatory and infectious disorders. This is a very important area of research because of the increase in resistance of micro-organisms to conventional antibiotics. Therefore the use of synthetic or recombinant peptides, or agents that stimulate the endogenous production of antimicrobial peptides, provides an attractive alternative for conventional antibiotics.

Plant Hormone Signaling Systems In Plant Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Plant Hormone Signaling Systems in Plant Innate Immunity
✏Author : P. Vidhyasekaran
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2014-10-01
✏Pages : 458
✏ISBN : 9789401792851
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Plant Hormone Signaling Systems in Plant Innate Immunity Book Summary : Plants are endowed with innate immune system, which acts as a surveillance system against possible attack by pathogens. Plant innate immune systems have high potential to fight against viral, bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens and protect the crop plants against wide range of diseases. However, the innate immune system is a sleeping system in unstressed healthy plants. Fast and strong activation of the plant immune responses aids the host plants to win the war against the pathogens. Plant hormone signaling systems including salicylate (SA), jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins and brassinosteroids signaling systems play a key role in activation of the sleeping immune systems. Suppression or induction of specific hormone signaling systems may result in disease development or disease resistance. Specific signaling pathway has to be activated to confer resistance against specific pathogen in a particular host. Two forms of induced resistance, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR), have been recognized based on the induction of specific hormone signaling systems. Specific hormone signaling system determines the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions, culminating in disease development or disease resistance. Susceptibility or resistance against a particular pathogen is determined by the action of the signaling network. The disease outcome is often determined by complex network of interactions among multiple hormone signaling pathways. Manipulation of the complex hormone signaling systems and fine tuning the hormone signaling events would help in management of various crop diseases. The purpose of the book is to critically examine the potential methods to manipulate the multiple plant hormone signaling systems to aid the host plants to win the battle against pathogens.

Innate Immunity Of Plants Animals And Humans Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity of Plants Animals and Humans
✏Author : Holger Heine
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2007-12-07
✏Pages : 241
✏ISBN : 9783540739302
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity of Plants Animals and Humans Book Summary : This book has been cunningly designed to provide an overview of our current knowledge about the innate immune systems of these three types of organisms. It not only covers the innate immune mechanisms and responses of such diverse organisms as plants, Cnidaria, Drosophila, urochordates and zebrafish, but also the major receptor systems in mammalians and humans. It delves too into the central defense mechanisms, antimicrobial peptides and the complement system.

Antimicrobial Peptides Utility Players In Innate Immunity Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antimicrobial Peptides Utility Players in Innate Immunity
✏Author : Mark W. Robinson
✏Publisher : Frontiers E-books
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889190775
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antimicrobial Peptides Utility Players in Innate Immunity Book Summary : Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an ancient group of molecules with diverse functions in innate immunity. To date, more than 1000 naturally-occurring AMPs have been identified which display considerable diversity in their primary sequences, lengths, structures and biological activities. Despite this variability, AMPs are broadly classified according to homologous secondary structures as cathelicidins (linear a-helical peptides), defensins (ß-strand peptides connected by disulfide bonds) and bactenecins (loop peptides). Most, but not all, AMPs are cationic with amphipathic faces. These biochemical properties bestow many peptides with potent antimicrobial activity by facilitating interactions with negatively charged microbial cell membrane components, thereby increasing membrane permeability and resulting in microbial death. Other indirect effects on microbial physiology have been reported including inhibition of DNA/RNA synthesis, impaired protein synthesis and folding, disruption of cell wall formation and inhibition of microbial cell metabolism. Thus, with the spread of antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens, AMPs have emerged as exciting candidates for next generation anti-infective therapies. However, recent studies suggest that AMPs have evolved other mechanisms of pathogen clearance. Immunomodulation is a novel approach to antimicrobial therapy that centres on boosting host immunity rather than direct microbial killing. This is also an attractive means to treat sepsis and other immune-mediated diseases. Whilst several cationic peptides are under investigation as antimicrobial agents, a select few show a remarkable ability to protect against lethal endotoxaemia and clinically-relevant bacterial infections including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The molecular mechanisms responsible for this protection are only beginning to emerge but include prevention of innate cell activation by targeting key stages of bacterial endotoxin-mediated cell signalling. In this research topic, hosted by Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity, we aim to highlight key areas of AMP research including peptide diversity, structure-function relationships, antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of immune-modulation. We also aim to stimulate discussion on the emerging therapeutic potential of AMPs including antifungal, antiviral and anticancer applications.

Innate Immunity And Neurodegenerative Disorders Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate immunity and neurodegenerative disorders
✏Author : Roger A Barker
✏Publisher : Frontiers E-books
✏Release Date : 2014-11-03
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889193103
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate immunity and neurodegenerative disorders Book Summary : Inflammation of the brain in the context of neurodegenerative disorders is an area of intense debate and discussion, not least in terms of its pathogenic significance and the extent to which it drives disease processes and pathology. This inflammation can take several forms including innate responses recruiting microglia, humoral responses involving antibody, complement mediated processes and cellular T-cell activation, of which the role and extent of each may differ between diseases. Whilst some diseases have been more intensely linked to inflammation and long-term degeneration (e.g. MS), more traditional chronic neurodegenerative disorders have been thought of in terms of intrinsic neuronal pathology with a secondary innate response. However, it has been described that microglia activation is an early event of many degenerative disorders and evidence is accumulating that it may play a critical role in actually causing pathology and driving disease processes. If true, this would have major therapeutic implications, but what is the evidence that this is the case? The initial observations by Patrick McGeer’s group of post-mortem tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease revealed the presence of activated brain microglia and has thus lead to the hypothesis that chronic inflammation could participate to neuronal degenerative processes. The significance of these original observations has only been recently revisited, and the development of more powerful tools to study the brain immune response has certainly contributed to this field of research. Chronic inflammation in the brain can take many forms but of particular interest has been the resident microglia and the role they play in this process. In this context, microglia have often been thought to become activated only after the disease has begun and then to contribute minimally to the degenerative process. Emerging new concepts challenge this view by proposing that microglial senescence, for example, may release the disease process and/or accelerate it. In addition, microglia, once activated, can adopt different phenotypes which can be both pro-inflammatory and pro-repair and may impact not only on the healthy adult neuronal population but on those new neurons derived from neurogenic niches of the adult brain. In this Research Topic, we attempt to explore this by first considering the innate immune responses in the brain and the methods by which they can be studied experimentally and in patients with various neurodegenerative disorders. This sets the scene for then discussing a range of different disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These papers seek to discuss the evidence for an innate immune response and whether this is beneficial or detrimental, as well as its therapeutic implications.

The Biology And Pathology Of Innate Immunity Mechanisms Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Biology and Pathology of Innate Immunity Mechanisms
✏Author : Yona Keisari
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2000-06-30
✏Pages : 330
✏ISBN : 9780306464096
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Biology and Pathology of Innate Immunity Mechanisms Book Summary : In recent years increased scientific attention has been given to immediate defense mechanisms based on non-clonal recognition of microbial components. These mechanisms constitute the innate immunity arm of the body s defense. Identification of pathogens by these mechanisms involves primarily receptors recognizing sugar moieties of various microorganisms. Innate immunity based mechanisms are essential for the existence of multicellular organisms. They are evolutionarily conserved and designed to provide immediate protection against microbial pathogens to eradicate infection. Activation of innate immunity is crucial for transition to specific immunity and for its orientation, and to assist the specific immune response in the recognition of pathogens and their destruction. Innate immunity is regularly involved in the arrest of bacterial, mycotic, viral and parasitic infections, giving the specific immune response time to become effective. It becomes critically essential in immunocompromised patients who fail to mount specific immune responses due to congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies as a result of chemotherapy, dialysis, immunosuppressive drugs, or HIV infection. The Innate Immunity arsenal constitutes polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes, mast cells, the complement system, Natural Killer cells, antimicrobial peptides, and presumably a subset of T lymphocytes with TCRl receptors.

Footmarks Of Innate Immunity In The Ovary And Cytokeratin Positive Cells As Potential Dendritic Cells Book PDF
✏Book Title : Footmarks of Innate Immunity in the Ovary and Cytokeratin Positive Cells as Potential Dendritic Cells
✏Author : Katharina Spanel-Borowski
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2010-11-22
✏Pages : 110
✏ISBN : 3642160778
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Footmarks of Innate Immunity in the Ovary and Cytokeratin Positive Cells as Potential Dendritic Cells Book Summary : The monograph introduces innate immunity as second authority in the ovary besides the endocrine system. Innate immunity appears to orchestrate follicular atresia, follicle rupture, follicle transformation into a corpus luteum (CL) and CL regression through nonsterile inflammation and tissue repair. The concept is new. It centres on cytokeratin-positive (CK+) cells being recognized as a potential nonlymphoid dendritic cell type (DC). Part I describes morphological aspects of immune privilege starting with active hamster ovary implants into the chicken chorioallantois membrane. Follicular atresia and follicle rupture correspond with mild and moderate tissue damage in ovaries of small rodents and rabbits. Superovulations cause severe tissue damage through intraovarian oocyte release with follicle wall remnants in oedema, rupture of vessel walls and thrombosis. The complement system and neuropeptides might play regulatory roles. Part IIa analyzes intact ovaries (cows, human) for the appearance of CK+ cells. In the foetal ovary, sex cords give rise to CK+ cells in primordial follicles. In the adult ovary, CK+ cells are absent in preantral follicles and reappear in mature and regressing follicles. In the CL of early development, steroidogenic CK+ cells build a peripheral zone in the previous granulosa cell layer, and uniformly distribute in the following stages. A microvessel-associated CK+ cell type is seldom found. Part IIb characterizes the morphology and function of CK+ cells in vitro. Isolated from human preovulatory follicles, the epithelioid CK+ granulosa cell subtype regulates TLR4 and CD14 at 36 h of treatment with oxidized lipoprotein (oxLDL, 150 mg/ml); nonapoptotic cell death and the increase of reactive oxygen species occur. In contrast, the CK-negative (CK-) granulosa cell type regulates the lectin-like oxLDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) and survival autophagy under oxLDL stimulation. Isolated from bovine CL, the epithelioid CK+ cell type 1 is disclosed as microvascular cell type with a single nonmotile cilium. The microvascular CK+ type strongly upregulates intercellular contacts under treatment with interferon- (IFN-). In the CK- cell type 5 of granulosa cell -like appearance, IFN- treatment supports cell proliferation, N-cadherin upregulation, and the dramatic increase in major histocompatibility complex II peptides (MHC II) by 80-fold compared to basal levels. Type 5 could have been conversed from the steroidogenic CK+ cell type. We summarize and conclude: CK+ granulosa cells express functionally active TLR4, which sense danger signals like oxidative stress in preovulatory follicles and trigger inflammatory and immunoregulatory pathways. The final outcome regulates follicle rupture and transformation into CL. Luteolysis could start by danger-sensing through the microvascular CK+ type 1 cells and the DC-like type 5 cells both sensitive to IFN-. The future will witness a novel strategy in the therapy of ovarian disorders like anovulations, luteal phase insufficiency, and autoimmune failures

Innate Immunity In Aquatic Vertebrates Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity in Aquatic Vertebrates
✏Author : Leon Grayfer
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2020-01-17
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889634279
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity in Aquatic Vertebrates Book Summary :

Innate Immunity For Better Or Worse Govern The Allograft Response Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innate Immunity for Better Or Worse Govern the Allograft Response
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2015
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051338286
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innate Immunity for Better Or Worse Govern the Allograft Response Book Summary : Abstract : Purpose of review: To update knowledge concerning the cause and consequences of the detrimental forms of innate immunity that inevitably occurs in peritransplant period tissue and cellular transplants. In addition, we review the information that a newly discovered, engraftment-promoting, and tolerance-inducing macrophage population is identified and characterized. Recent findings: The allograft response mounted by adaptive immune cells is shaped by innate immunity. The early allograft response is uniquely intense as a result of activation of the innate immune response created by ischemia reperfusion injury in organ transplants, delayed revascularization of cell transplants, and hypoxia. Inflammation is created by both cellular 'debris' and cytokines. However, a newly discovered prominent, albeit fragile, tissue-resident, noninvasive, and immunoregulatory macrophage promotes engraftment and tolerance. The role of intracellular 'debris' as well as inflammation in evoking detrimental rejection-provoking peritransplant inflammation is emphasized as well as characterization of a prominent and highly immunoregulatory albeit fragile macrophage population that is tissue-resident and does not circulate is characterized. Summary: Opportunity lies in the ability to rein in detrimental peri-transplant inflammation and in the ability to promote the longevity of a subpopulation of highly potent tissue-resident immunoregulatory macrophages.

Mechanisms Of Innate Immunity In Culicine Mosquitoes Book PDF
✏Book Title : Mechanisms of Innate Immunity in Culicine Mosquitoes
✏Author : Lyric C. Bartholomay
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2004
✏Pages : 153
✏ISBN : WISC:89089234512
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Mechanisms of Innate Immunity in Culicine Mosquitoes Book Summary :

📒The Innate Immune System ✍ Masaru Taniguchi

The Innate Immune System Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Innate Immune System
✏Author : Masaru Taniguchi
✏Publisher : Elsevier Science Health Science Division
✏Release Date : 2005
✏Pages : 216
✏ISBN : UOM:39015063098167
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Innate Immune System Book Summary : The Uehara Memorial Foundation Symposium 2005, entitled "The Innate Immune System: Strategies for Disease Control," was convened in Tokyo from July 11th to July 13th, 2005. The aim of the symposium was to bring together leading scientists in the field from all over the world, and to discuss the latest research findings on molecular events in the innate immune system, the interface between innate and acquired immunity, and potential applications of recent findings. It was an explicit aim of this symposium to increase our understanding in this field and further the development of novel strategies for disease control in the 21st century.--Preface.

Mif Family Cytokines In Innate Immunity And Homeostasis Book PDF
✏Book Title : MIF Family Cytokines in Innate Immunity and Homeostasis
✏Author : Richard Bucala
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2017-05-31
✏Pages : 246
✏ISBN : 9783319523545
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏MIF Family Cytokines in Innate Immunity and Homeostasis Book Summary : The role of the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the immune response and in the immunopathogenesis of different inflammatory, autoimmune, and infectious disorders is now well-established. Recent studies continue to broaden considerably the role of MIF in both normal physiology and pathology, which range from such diverse areas as oncogenesis, metabolism, and cellular stress responses. MIF’s molecular mechanism of action in these contexts is becoming increasingly understood and the role of variant MIF alleles in different conditions continues to be defined. New family members, such as D-dopachrome tautomerase, or MIF-2, and the closely homologous genes encoding by parasites have been defined and are being functionally characterized. MIF directed therapies also are entering clinical testing and ultimately may be applied in a pharmacogenomics manner. This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the state-of-the-art of MIF science. The intended audience are post-graduate students and researchers in inflammation, innate immunity, immunology, and immunopathology.