Herbivory Of Leaf Cutting Ants
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📒Herbivory Of Leaf Cutting Ants ✍ Rainer Wirth
✏Herbivory of Leaf Cutting Ants Book Summary : Plant-animal interactions have become a focus of ecological research, with the processes of herbivory being of special interest. This volume examines the interactions of leaf-cutting ants with the rainforest vegetation on Barro Colorado Islands in Central America. It is the synthesis of field research on multiple scales extending over a period of several years. This work can serve as a model study summarizing and extending knowledge about herbivorous insect-plant relationships, and the resulting consequences on structural and functional features of tropical ecosystems. The text is an invaluable reference for researchers and land managers working in the fields of plant-animal interactions, herbivory, community ecology and biodiversity.
📒Microbial Mediation Of Herbivory In Leaf Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens ✍ Lily Khadempour
✏Microbial Mediation of Herbivory in Leaf cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Book Summary : Most metazoans lack the physiological capacity to use plants as their sole source of energy and nutrients. To compensate for this, metazoans associate with microbial symbionts, which aid their hosts with the breakdown of recalcitrant biomass, remediation of plant defense compounds, and nutrient supplementation. Leaf-cutter ants, dominant herbivores in the Neotropics, are a paradigmatic example of this microbial mediation of herbivory. The ants cut foliar biomass from their surroundings and provide it as a growth substrate to their fungal cultivar Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The cultivar breaks down the plant biomass and provides specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia, which the ants consume as their primary source of energy. In this dissertation, I explore the relationships between the different types of substrates ants incorporate into their fungus gardens and how both the fungal cultivar and the bacterial community facilitate the ants' breadth in substrate use. I approach these investigations through an ecological and evolutionary lens using contemporary 'omics' tools. In chapter 1, I present the context in which this dissertation work was completed. I describe trends in the microbial mediation of herbivory and review the current state of understanding of how this relates to leaf-cutter ants. In chapter 2, I use metaproteomics to compare the proteins that the cultivar secretes when provided with different plant substrates. I show that the fungus responds in a flexible, substrate-specific manner to the material that the ants incorporate into their gardens. In chapter 3, I focus on the bacterial community in the fungus gardens of ants and how they may facilitate the ants' transition from using dicots to grasses. Using metagenomics, I show a shift in the bacterial community between these two types of substrate specialization and an associated shift in the functional capacity of the bacteria. In chapter 4, I continue investigating the ants' evolutionary transition to a novel substrate by examining the genomes of the fungal cultivars from the colonies of ants with grass and dicot substrate specializations. In this chapter I present preliminary results that further support the fungus' capacity for biomass degradation and present future directions into the evolution of this fungus, in terms of its transition to symbiosis, its transition to novel substrates, and its polykaryotic life history. In sum, the work presented in this dissertation expands our knowledge into the microbial mediation of herbivory in the leaf-cutter ant system.
📒The Leafcutter Ants Civilization By Instinct ✍ Bert Hölldobler
✏The Leafcutter Ants Civilization by Instinct Book Summary : From the Pulitzer Prize-winning authors of The Ants comes this dynamic and visually spectacular portrait of Earth's ultimate superorganism. The Leafcutter Ants is the most detailed and authoritative description of any ant species ever produced. With a text suitable for both a lay and a scientific audience, the book provides an unforgettable tour of Earth's most evolved animal societies. Each colony of leafcutters contains as many as five million workers, all the daughters of a single queen that can live over a decade. A gigantic nest can stretch thirty feet across, rise five feet or more above the ground, and consist of hundreds of chambers that reach twenty-five feet below the ground surface. Indeed, the leafcutters have parlayed their instinctive civilization into a virtual domination of forest, grassland, and cropland—from Louisiana to Patagonia. Inspired by a section of the authors' acclaimed The Superorganism, this brilliantly illustrated work provides the ultimate explanation of what a social order with a half-billion years of animal evolution has achieved.
📒Tropical Rainforest Research Current Issues ✍ D.S. Edwards
✏Tropical Rainforest Research Current Issues Book Summary : This volume contains 53 of the papers presented at the Conference on Tropical Rainforest Research - Current Issues, which was held in Brunei Darussalam in April 1993. The book provides an overview of current knowledge, particularly with respect to south-east Asia, and is divided into three sections - Biodiversity, Forest Dynamics and Socioeconomics. The Biodiversity section emphasises the vast range of life forms in tropical forests and considers the theory and practice of estimating species richness and spatial distribution, while contributions on Forest Dynamics provide a better understanding of the maintenance of this species richness. With an improved background of ideas on rainforest dynamics and biodiversity, better management and conservation strategies are possible, and some of these are explored in the papers on Socioeconomics. The need to demonstrate the total worth of tropical forests to ensure their conservation is taken up by a number of contributors.
📒The Ecology And Evolution Of Ant Plant Interactions ✍ Victor Rico-Gray
✏The Ecology and Evolution of Ant Plant Interactions Book Summary : Ants are probably the most dominant insect group on Earth. This title brings together findings from the scientific literature on the coevolution of ants and plants to provide an understanding of the unparalleled success of these two remarkable groups, of interspecific interactions in general, and, ultimately, of terrestrial biological communities.
📒The Evolutionary Ecology Of Ant Plant Mutualisms ✍ Andrew James Beattie
✏The Evolutionary Ecology of Ant Plant Mutualisms Book Summary : This important work is the first broad and thorough treatment of the subject of ant-plant mutualisms.
✏ coscience Book Summary :
✏Advances in Gram Positive Bacteria Research and Treatment 2012 Edition Book Summary : Advances in Gram-Positive Bacteria Research and Treatment / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Gram-Positive Bacteria in a concise format. The editors have built Advances in Gram-Positive Bacteria Research and Treatment / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Gram-Positive Bacteria in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Gram-Positive Bacteria Research and Treatment / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
📒Ant Plant Interactions ✍ Camilla R. Huxley
✏Ant plant Interactions Book Summary : This book presents current research on all types of ant-plant interactions, and concentrates on understanding these often complex relationships in evolutionary and ecological terms. The range of interactions varies from herbivory (leaf-cutter ants) to complex symbiosis. Many ants prey on plant pests, thus protecting the plant from harm, receiving in exchange nectar and/or nest sites. In some cases the ants tend and protect other insects such as butterfly larvae or Homopterans (which include the aphids and cicadas) which may benefit the ants at the expense of both the host plant and the other insects. Some ants are known to be seed dispersers, and in at least one plant (cocoa) they appear to affect rates of pollination. A significant proportion of these interactions exhibit a high degree of mutualism, making this book part of a growing literature on the ecological determinants of mutualistic behaviour. The thirty-seven chapters by more than fifty contributors range in geographical coverage from northern and southern temperate zones, to the New World tropics, to Australia and South-east Asia. The emphasis throughout, even in the more descriptive chapters, is on possible explanations for observed phenomena. Workers in ecology, evolution, and behavior will welcome this compendium of information on a subject that has become a modern testing ground for evolutionary ecology.
📒Plant Animal Interactions ✍ H. D. Kumar
✏Plant animal interactions Book Summary :