Gut Microbiota

📒Understanding The Gut Microbiota ✍ Gerald W. Tannock

Understanding The Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Understanding the Gut Microbiota
✏Author : Gerald W. Tannock
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2017-03-06
✏Pages : 184
✏ISBN : 9781118801420
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Understanding the Gut Microbiota Book Summary : This book discusses the community of microbial species (the microbiota, microbiome), which inhabits the large bowel of humans. Written from the perspective of an academic who has been familiar with the topic for 40 years, it provides a long-term perspective of knowledge about this high profile and fast-moving topic. Building on general ecological principles, the book aims to help the reader to understand how the microbiota is formed, how it works, and what the consequences are to humans. Understanding the Gut Microbiota focuses on conceptual progress made from studies of the human bowel microbiota. Where appropriate, it draws on knowledge obtained from other animal species to provide conceptual enlightenment, but this is essentially a book about humans and their bowel microbes. Particular research approaches are recommended to fill knowledge gaps so that fundamental ecological theory and information about the microbiota can be translated into benefits for human health. The relationship between food for humans and resulting food for bowel bacteria emerges as an important topic for consideration. This concise scholarly treatise of the microbiota of the human bowel will be of great interest and use as a text and reference work for professionals, teachers and students across a wide range of disciplines, including the health sciences, general biology, and food science and technology. The provision of handy ‘explanation of terms’ means that those with a general interest in science can also read the book with enjoyment. About the Author Gerald W. Tannock, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

📒Gut Microbiota ✍ Edward Ishiguro

Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Gut Microbiota
✏Author : Edward Ishiguro
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2018-01-10
✏Pages : 208
✏ISBN : 9780128105429
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Gut Microbiota Book Summary : Gut Microbiota: Interactive Effects on Nutrition and Health provides a detailed account of gut microbiota research, an exploration of how diet influences gut microbiota and the implications of gut microbiota for health. The book provides a summary of how diet interacts with the gut microbiome and presents practical applications focused on food, supplements and safety. This book provides scientists and clinicians who have an interest in the microbiome with an understanding of the future potential—and limitations—of this tool, as they strive to make use of evidence-based diet information for the maintenance of good health. Consolidates new research on how gut microbiota affects nutrition Identifies how the research applies to food, supplements and safety Provides diet recommendations to improve health Includes case studies from clinical populations Explores how diet influences gut microbiota

Interactions Between Diets Gut Microbiota And Host Metabolism Book PDF
✏Book Title : Interactions Between Diets Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism
✏Author : Jie Yin
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2020-09-11
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889639984
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Interactions Between Diets Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism Book Summary :

📒Gut Microbiota ✍ Alper Evrensel

Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Gut Microbiota
✏Author : Alper Evrensel
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2018-12-12
✏Pages : 114
✏ISBN : 9781789848144
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Gut Microbiota Book Summary : The gut-brain axis has gained considerable attention from different branches of the scientific community in recent years. In this book, scientists from different disciplines present current scientific knowledge on the topic. The interaction between the prokaryote and eukaryote cells stimulates the evolutionary processes, and results in various systemic illnesses such as neuropsychiatric disorders and may help the continuity of health. Nature has provided us with healthy food that builds our pharmacy. This natural pharmacy store may help the body's healing processes through its effects on gut microbiota and the immune system. This book aims to provide the reader with detailed analyses of the current scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis and its relation with health and disease. We hope that the reader benefits from the presented material.

Bifidobacteria And Their Role In The Human Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Bifidobacteria and their role in the human gut microbiota
✏Author : Francesca Turroni
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2017-02-15
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889451005
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Bifidobacteria and their role in the human gut microbiota Book Summary : The human intestine is home of an almost inconceivable large number of microorganisms. The human gut microbiota can therefore be pictured as an organ placed within a host organism. The human gut microbiome, which in total may contain >100 times the number of genes present in our genome, endows us with functional features that we did not have to evolve ourselves. It is recognized that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease. In fact, gut bacteria other than metabolize dietary components, may play complex roles such as modulation of the immune system and in reduction of gut infections. Variations in the presence and/or abundance of certain components of the intestinal microbiota have repeatedly been observed in patients that suffer from atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis, colon cancer and diabetes. In this context, bifidobacteria represent one of the most common bacterial members of the human gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are anaerobic, Gram-positive, irregular or branched rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the gastro-intestinal tracts (GIT) of humans, especially during the first stages of life and most animal and insects. Bifidobacterial fluctuations seem directly associated with health effects and for these reasons they are being exploited as health-promoting or probiotic bacteria. However, despite the extensive commercial exploitation of bifidobacteria as probiotic bacteria, little is known about their impact or dependency on other members of the human gut microbiota or on their host. Genome analyses have highlighted the existence of gene repertoires encoding products that are responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria to the human intestine and intense research efforts at international level are ongoing to understand the molecular details of these interactions. Specifically, the molecular interactions that are presumed to exist between bifidobacteria and the human host, as well as interactions between different residents of intestinal microbiota are the main topic of bifidobacterial research communities.

Bifidobacteria And Their Role In The Human Gut Microbiota 2nd Edition Book PDF
✏Book Title : Bifidobacteria and Their Role in the Human Gut Microbiota 2nd Edition
✏Author : Francesca Turroni
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2020-02-14
✏Pages : 244
✏ISBN : 9782889633548
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Bifidobacteria and Their Role in the Human Gut Microbiota 2nd Edition Book Summary : The human intestine is home of an almost inconceivable large number of microorganisms. The human gut microbiota can therefore be pictured as an organ placed within a host organism. The human gut microbiome, which in total may contain >100 times the number of genes present in our genome, endows us with functional features that we did not have to evolve ourselves. It is recognized that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease. In fact, gut bacteria other than metabolize dietary components, may play complex roles such as modulation of the immune system and in reduction of gut infections. Variations in the presence and/or abundance of certain components of the intestinal microbiota have repeatedly been observed in patients that suffer from atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis, colon cancer and diabetes. In this context, bifidobacteria represent one of the most common bacterial members of the human gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are anaerobic, Gram-positive, irregular or branched rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the gastro-intestinal tracts (GIT) of humans, especially during the first stages of life and most animal and insects. Bifidobacterial fluctuations seem directly associated with health effects and for these reasons they are being exploited as health-promoting or probiotic bacteria. However, despite the extensive commercial exploitation of bifidobacteria as probiotic bacteria, little is known about their impact or dependency on other members of the human gut microbiota or on their host. Genome analyses have highlighted the existence of gene repertoires encoding products that are responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria to the human intestine and intense research efforts at international level are ongoing to understand the molecular details of these interactions. Specifically, the molecular interactions that are presumed to exist between bifidobacteria and the human host, as well as interactions between different residents of intestinal microbiota are the main topic of bifidobacterial research communities.

Gut Microbiota And Pathogenesis Of Organ Injury Book PDF
✏Book Title : Gut Microbiota and Pathogenesis of Organ Injury
✏Author : Peng Chen
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9789811523854
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Gut Microbiota and Pathogenesis of Organ Injury Book Summary :

Nutrition Gut Microbiota And Immunity Therapeutic Targets For Ibd Book PDF
✏Book Title : Nutrition Gut Microbiota and Immunity Therapeutic Targets for IBD
✏Author : J.D. Lewis
✏Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
✏Release Date : 2014-09-10
✏Pages : 180
✏ISBN : 9783318026702
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Nutrition Gut Microbiota and Immunity Therapeutic Targets for IBD Book Summary : Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic debilitating disorder that occurs at any age and in populations around the world. Its pathogenesis is believed to involve a combination of genetic susceptibility, immune and external environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. Changing factors such as diet and the human gut microbiota may thus be a viable alternative to suppressing the innate and adaptive immune responses. The book at hand starts with a summary of the current understanding of the epidemiology and biologic underpinnings that manifest as IBD. Next, the gut microbiota, its function, and how it may interact with nutritional status in perpetuating IBD are looked at, followed by discussions on the potential for manipulation of the gut microbiota through the use of prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal transplantation. Chapters on the current role of and future prospects for nutritional interventions in the management of IBD complete the topics presented.

Human Gut Microbiota Onset And Shaping Through Life Stages And Perturbations Book PDF
✏Book Title : Human gut microbiota onset and shaping through life stages and perturbations
✏Author : Lorenza Putignani
✏Publisher : Frontiers E-books
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889190874
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Human gut microbiota onset and shaping through life stages and perturbations Book Summary :

Metabonomics And Gut Microbiota In Nutrition And Disease Book PDF
✏Book Title : Metabonomics and Gut Microbiota in Nutrition and Disease
✏Author : Sunil Kochhar
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2014-10-21
✏Pages : 375
✏ISBN : 9781447165392
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Metabonomics and Gut Microbiota in Nutrition and Disease Book Summary : This book provides a comprehensive overview of metabonomics and gut microbiota research from molecular analysis to population-based global health considerations. The topics include the discussion of the applications in relation to metabonomics and gut microbiota in nutritional research, in health and disease and a review of future therapeutical, nutraceutical and clinical applications. It also examines the translatability of systems biology approaches into applied clinical research and to patient health and nutrition. The rise in multifactorial disorders, the lack of understanding of the molecular processes at play and the needs for disease prediction in asymptomatic conditions are some of the many questions that system biology approaches are well suited to address. Achieving this goal lies in our ability to model and understand the complex web of interactions between genetics, metabolism, environmental factors and gut microbiota. Being the most densely populated microbial ecosystem on earth, gut microbiota co-evolved as a key component of human biology, essentially extending the physiological definition of humans. Major advances in microbiome research have shown that the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to the overall health status of the host has been so far underestimated. Human host gut microbial interaction is one of the most significant human health considerations of the present day with relevance for both prevention of disease via microbiota-oriented environmental protection as well as strategies for new therapeutic approaches using microbiota as targets and/or biomarkers. In many aspects, humans are not a complete and fully healthy organism without their appropriate microbiological components. Increasingly, scientific evidence identifies gut microbiota as a key biological interface between human genetics and environmental conditions encompassing nutrition. Microbiota dysbiosis or variation in metabolic activity has been associated with metabolic deregulation (e.g. obesity, inflammatory bowel disease), disease risk factor (e.g. coronary heart disease) and even the aetiology of various pathologies (e.g. autism, cancer), although causal role into impaired metabolism still needs to be established. Metabonomics and Gut Microbiota in Nutrition and Disease serves as a handbook for postgraduate students, researchers in life sciences or health sciences, scientists in academic and industrial environments working in application areas as diverse as health, disease, nutrition, microbial research and human clinical medicine.

Xenobiotics And The Gut Microbiome In Health And Disease Book PDF
✏Book Title : Xenobiotics and the Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease
✏Author : Stephen J. Pandol
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2019-10-14
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889630820
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Xenobiotics and the Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease Book Summary :

Role And Impact Of The Gut Microbiota In A Drosophila Model For Parkinsonism Book PDF
✏Book Title : Role and Impact of the Gut Microbiota in a Drosophila Model for Parkinsonism
✏Author : Virzhiniya Lekova
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages : 204
✏ISBN : OCLC:1031392924
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Role and Impact of the Gut Microbiota in a Drosophila Model for Parkinsonism Book Summary : Current studies suggest a relationship between microbes in the gut and the brain, including an impact on brain disease development, severity, and progression. However, exploring this relationship is hindered by the intricacies of mammalian models. Drosophila has the potential to be an excellent model organism for studies of the gut-brain axis due to the relative simplicity of its microbiome, similarity to mammals, and efficient methods to rear germ-free flies. To take advantage of this potential, I examined the gut-brain axis in Drosophila models of autosomal recessive parkinsonism and observed a five-fold increase in the gut microbial load of aged parkin animals. The microbial load of pink1 animals was unchanged, suggesting a Pink1-independent role for parkin in maintaining microbial load numbers within normal range. Conditional RNAi showed that parkin is required in gut enterocytes and not in neurons or muscle to maintain microbial load homeostasis. Germ-free parkin flies exhibited improved resistance to paraquat, suggesting an impact of the gut microbiome on toxin sensitivity in parkin flies. Sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed microbial species with altered relative abundance in parkin null flies compared to controls. These data reveal a role for parkin activity in maintaining microbial composition and abundance in the gut, suggesting a relationship between parkin function and the gut microbiome, and deepening our understanding of parkin and its mutant effects.

The Gut Microbiome Exploring The Connection Between Microbes Diet And Health Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Gut Microbiome Exploring the Connection between Microbes Diet and Health
✏Author : Ana Maria R. Moise
✏Publisher : ABC-CLIO
✏Release Date : 2017-10-27
✏Pages : 198
✏ISBN : 9781440842658
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Gut Microbiome Exploring the Connection between Microbes Diet and Health Book Summary : This accessibly written, comprehensive summary of research findings on the gut microbiome and its implications for health and disease—a topic of growing interest and concern—serves as an essential resource for teachers and students. • Presents the most recent gut microbiome research in a way that is accessible to students interested in biological sciences and nutrition studies • Includes engaging sidebars and case studies that serve to better illustrate the connections between gut microbiota, human physiology, and chronic disease • Provides insight into the role of nutrition in shaping the gut microbiota and suggestions for improving human health

How Fermented Foods Feed A Healthy Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : How Fermented Foods Feed a Healthy Gut Microbiota
✏Author : M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date : 2019-11-28
✏Pages : 366
✏ISBN : 9783030287375
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏How Fermented Foods Feed a Healthy Gut Microbiota Book Summary : This book examines the role of fermented foods on human gut health and offers a unique contribution to this rapidly growing area of study. Fermented foods have been consumed by humans for millennia. This method of food preservation provided early humans with beneficial bacteria that re-populated the gut microbiota upon consumption. However, novel methods of production and conservation of food have led to severed ties between the food that modern humans consume and the gut microbiota. As a consequence, there has been a documented increase in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases and obesity, which has been correlated to decreased diversity of gut microbes, while infectious disorders have decreased in the three past decades. With the intention of providing a thorough overview of the relationship between fermented foods, nutrition, and health, the editors have grouped the chapters into three thematic sections: food and their associated microbes, the oral microbiome, and the gut microbiome. After an introduction dedicated to the environmental microbiome, Part I provides an overview of what is currently known about the microbes associated with different foods, and compares traditional forms of food preparation with current industrial techniques in terms of the potential loss of microbial diversity. The chapters in Part 2 explore the oral microbiota as a microbial gatekeeper and main contributor to the gut microbiota. Part 3 introduces beneficial modulators of the gut microbiome starting with the establishment of a healthy gut microbiota during infancy, and continuing with the role of probiotics and prebiotics in health preservation and the imbalances of the gut microbiota. In the final section the editors offer concluding remarks and provide a view of the future brought by the microbiome research revolution. This study is unique in its emphasis on the convergence of two very relevant fields of research: the field of studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and fermented foods, and microbiome research. The relationship between these fields, as presented by the research in this volume, demonstrates the intimate connection between fermented foods, the oral and gut microbiota, and human health. Although research has been done on the impact of diet on the gut microbiome there are no publications addressing the restorative role of food as microbe provider to the gut microbiota. This novel approach makes the edited volume a key resource for scientific researchers working in this field.

The Gut Microbiome In Health And Disease Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease
✏Author : Nathan W. Schmidt
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2019-12-24
✏Pages : 275
✏ISBN : 9782889630035
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease Book Summary :

Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Gut Microbiota
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages : 338
✏ISBN : 274201523X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Gut Microbiota Book Summary :

Gut Microbiome And Its Impact On Health And Diseases Book PDF
✏Book Title : Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Health and Diseases
✏Author : Debabrata Biswas
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9783030473846
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Health and Diseases Book Summary :

Metabolism Of Nutrients By Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Metabolism of Nutrients by Gut Microbiota
✏Author : Joseph F. Pierre
✏Publisher : ISSN
✏Release Date : 2020-05-19
✏Pages : 320
✏ISBN : 178801748X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Metabolism of Nutrients by Gut Microbiota Book Summary : Bringing together expert researchers in the fields of microbiome, metabolism, and nutrition research, this book compiles the current state of knowledge from authorities specifically on how diet regulates microbial function with metabolic implications for the human host. Chapters cover the broad concepts of microbial-host interactions under the dietary influences of specific macronutrients, micronutrients, small molecule generation and bile acid circulation, with inclusion of later clinical chapters encompassing topics like bariatric surgery and our current understanding of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Covering a timely topic from a functional standpoint, the book fills a gap in the existing literature. While increased attention is placed on descriptive work, it will importantly highlight emerging functional and mechanistic research findings that illustrate the inner workings of the dietary-microbial-host orchestration of metabolic regulation. Providing an exciting summary of the importance of current microbial function, it will also summarize the next major directions in the field of microbiome research.

Intestinal Microbiota In Health And Disease Book PDF
✏Book Title : Intestinal Microbiota in Health and Disease
✏Author : Eduardo J. Schiffrin
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2014-02-11
✏Pages : 344
✏ISBN : 9781482226768
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Intestinal Microbiota in Health and Disease Book Summary : Now considered an organ with defensive and metabolic capabilities, the intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the local host immune system development and education. It contributes to the generation of a homeostatic balance characterized by the capacity to react against pathogens while remaining hyperresponsive/tolerant against commensals. This homeostatic response depends on bacteria and bacterial product sensing by innate immune cells and their molecular asset at the intestinal mucosa. This book captures the enormous progress that has been accomplished in this field in recent years.

📒Gut Microbiota Nutrition ✍ Monique Rothe

Gut Microbiota Nutrition Book PDF
✏Book Title : Gut Microbiota Nutrition
✏Author : Monique Rothe
✏Publisher : Sudwestdeutscher Verlag Fur Hochschulschriften AG
✏Release Date : 2014-03
✏Pages : 140
✏ISBN : 3838137981
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Gut Microbiota Nutrition Book Summary : Diet is a major force influencing the intestinal microbiota. This is obvious from drastic changes in microbiota composition after a dietary alteration. Due to the complexity of the commensal microbiota and the high inter-individual variability, little is known about the bacterial response at the cellular level. The objective of this work was to identify mechanisms that enable gut bacteria to adapt to dietary factors. For this purpose, germ-free mice monoassociated with the commensal Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 were fed different diets: a diet rich in starch, a diet rich in non-digestible lactose and a diet rich in casein. Differentially expressed proteins of E. coli recovered from small intestine and caecum of mice were identified and characterised in vitro for their possible roles in bacterial adaptation to the various diets. The results of this study demonstrate the crucial influence of osmotic stress on the gene expression of E. coli enzymes involved in stress response and metabolic processes. Therefore, the adaptation to diet induced osmotic stress may be a possible key factor for bacterial colonisati

Human Gut Microbiota And Obesity During Development Book PDF
✏Book Title : Human Gut Microbiota and Obesity During Development
✏Author : Tomás Cerdó
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1154245670
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Human Gut Microbiota and Obesity During Development Book Summary : Obesity, particularly in children and adolescents, has become a significant public health problem that has reached "epidemic" status worldwide. The etiology of obesity is complex and involves lifestyle factors that are challenging to modify. The intestinal microbiota contribute to protection against pathogens, maturation of the immune system, and metabolic welfare of the host but, under some circumstances, can contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases. Over the last decade, novel evidence from animal and human studies has identified associations between human intestinal bacteria and host metabolism and obesity. Infancy is a critical period in the development of the gut microbiota: initial colonization is influenced not only by a number of early-life exposures, including birth mode, infant nutrition, or antibiotic use, but also by maternal factors during pregnancy, including maternal BMI, nutrition, gut microbial composition, and drug exposure, among others. Thus, an adequate nutritional and microbial environment during the perinatal period and early life may provide windows of opportunity to reduce the risk of obesity and overweight in our children by using targeted strategies aimed to modulate the gut microbiota during early life.

Conserved Gut Microbiota In A Herbivorous Beetle Mediates The Degradation Of Host Plant Defenses Book PDF
✏Book Title : Conserved Gut Microbiota in a Herbivorous Beetle Mediates the Degradation of Host Plant Defenses
✏Author : Aileen Berasategui
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1029767145
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Conserved Gut Microbiota in a Herbivorous Beetle Mediates the Degradation of Host Plant Defenses Book Summary : The gut microbiome of insects is known to play essential roles in host's fitness through a variety of functions including nutritional supplementation of diets, influencing development, and mediating parasite and pathogen resistance. In this thesis, we have explored the role that gut microbes may play in the degradation of plant secondary metabolites that are toxic to insects, focusing primarily on the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) and terpenoids. Characterization of the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil revealed a relatively stable microbiota at higher taxonomical levels (e.g. family and genus) across different locations in Europe, especially within the Enterobacteriaceae family. Despite showing some variation between locations, the pine weevil harbors a "core microbiota" composed of close relatives of Rahnella sp, Erwinia sp and Serratia sp.

P2 31 05 Dietary Emulsifiers Differentially Impact The Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : P2 31 05 Dietary Emulsifiers Differentially Impact the Gut Microbiota
✏Author : Tom van der Wiele
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1163848346
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏P2 31 05 Dietary Emulsifiers Differentially Impact the Gut Microbiota Book Summary : Dietary additives are widely used in processed food products and have become a target for research in terms of their impact on the gut microbiome. Recent studies with dietary emulsifiers in both in vitro and murine models have indicated a strong impact on both the gut microbiome and host health, possibly related to chronic gut inflammation and other western ailments. One particular finding to highlight from these studies is an increased level of bacterial flagellin found upon exposure to the emulsifiers, indicating increased bacterial motility. This feature would allow the bacteria to become more aggressive towards the gut lining.This study aimed at characterizing the effects of 5 dietary emulsifiers on the composition and the activity of the gut bacteria. A comparison was made between 2 mainstream chemical ones (carboxymethylcellulose and tween80) and 3 natural or biotechnological examples (soy lecithin, sophorolipids and rhamnolipids). A second aim was to investigate interindividual variability.The short term effects of the 5 emulsifiers on the gut microbiota of 10 individuals were tested in a series of 48h batch-incubations. Emulsifiers were combined with fecal slurry in 4 concentrations: 0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5 m%. The endpoints measured were the bacterial activity (SCFA-production), the intact cell population (SGPI-staining and Flow cytometry) and community composition (MiSeq sequencing). Also, the bacterial metagenome was assessed using PICRUSt.The 5 emulsifiers showed clearly different effects on all 3 parameters. Sophorolipids and Rhamnolipids were indicated as most harmful towards the microbiota.They diminished the live/dead fractions of the bacteria and increased sharply the abundance of 1 OUT, identified as Escherichia/Shigella, which belongs to the category of opportunistic pathogens. Both also decreased the butyrate production, in favour of propionate. Carboxymethylcellulose and Tween80 show limited effects on SCFA-production, cell counts or microbial composition. Soy Lecithin decreased live/dead ratiou2019s and increased the same OTU of Escherichia/Shigella. It also gave rise to increasing levels of propionate production. Its impact was also slower than the immediate impacts of sophorolipids and rhamnolipids. With regards to the motilty of the microbial community, the PICRUSt analysis confirmed the earlier findings in this in vitro setting by indicating strongly increased levels of motility genes. Finally, clear differences were noted in the response of the different donors to the emulsifiers.Conflict of interest:There is no conflict of interest.

The Gut Microbiome An Issue Of Gastroenterology Clinics Of North America E Book Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Gut Microbiome An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America E Book
✏Author : Eamonn M.M. Quigley
✏Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
✏Release Date : 2017-02-09
✏Pages : 246
✏ISBN : 9780323509978
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Gut Microbiome An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America E Book Book Summary : Dr. Quigley has created a must-have reference on the gut microbiome for the practicing gastroenterologist. A leader in the field of human physiology and digestive disorders, he has laid out the basics on this increasingly important topic, devoting articles to the organization and biology of the human gut microbiome as well as its diagnostic potential. Top international authors have presented articles that discuss the intersection of the gut microbiome and diet and the gut-brain axis. Clinical implications of the gut microbiome are discussed with disease states like IBD, GI cancer, and liver diseases. Finally, the issue ends with the cutting-edge clinical innovation of fecal microbial transplantation. This issue bridges the gap between science and clinical practice and should be an important reference to practicing gastroenterologists.

Towards Engineering The Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Towards Engineering the Gut Microbiota
✏Author : Sean Michael Kearney
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages : 128
✏ISBN : OCLC:1080639244
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Towards Engineering the Gut Microbiota Book Summary : The human gastrointestinal tract is home to a dense and dynamic microbial community. Recent advancements in sequencing technology have revealed numerous relationships between the composition of these communities and human and health and disease. In some cases, researchers have shown causal relationships between the presence or absence of particular microorganisms and disease. These findings offer promise for using microorganisms or microbial communities to modulate health and disease, but to date, we lack tools and mechanistic insight needed for rational engineering of these communities. Understanding how microorganisms enter, colonize, grow, and disperse to new hosts present key considerations for rational engineering of the human gastrointestinal tract. In this thesis, I use experimental studies of the human and murine gastrointestinal tract to address these considerations. In the first study, I examined endospores and other resistant cell types in the gastrointestinal communities of unrelated humans to identify the ecological role of these states in the distribution of bacterial populations in healthy people. I used this information to infer shared roles for these organisms in successional states in the human gut, and identify host- and diet-derived metabolites as environmental signals mediating the growth and colonization of these organisms. In the second study, I examined the potential for using targeted manipulations of diet to favor selective growth and colonization by an introduced bacterium in the murine gastrointestinal tract. I showed that resource exclusivity of this bacterium permits its selective expansion in this environment, and negatively impacts the growth of other commensals. Central to the goal of rational engineering of the gut microbiota, these studies reveal ecological considerations that may promote or inhibit colonization by introduced commensals in this complex ecosystem. This work invites provides a conceptual framework for integrating systems microbial ecology with engineering design to manipulate the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota.

Modeling Effects Of Diet On Human Gut Microbiota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Modeling Effects of Diet on Human Gut Microbiota
✏Author : Richard Thomas Agans
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2016
✏Pages : 105
✏ISBN : OCLC:1110424053
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Modeling Effects of Diet on Human Gut Microbiota Book Summary : The human gut microbiota is integrally involved in the metabolism of nutrients contained within the human diet. Studies into human nutrition have primarily been carried out using human and animal models. These studies are extremely important in our understanding of human nutrition, however, suffer from inherent limitations including unique microbial compositions between individuals, compliance in human studies, inability to carry out mechanistic studies, and inability to interrogate proximal regions of the gut without applying invasive techniques. In vitro gut simulator systems circumvent many of these limitations in animal and human models by allowing control of gut environmental conditions, decreasing variability observed between subjects, and enabling mechanistic investigations and interrogations of inaccessible regions of the gut. In this work a custom biofermentation system, the human gut simulator, was designed, validated, utilizing previously reported gut conditions, capable of temperature, pH, and atmosphere regulation, nutrient transit, and it allows real-time sampling of vessel contents or addition of exogenous agents. The human gut simulator was further employed to the study of gut microbiota response to dietary long chain fatty acids as a sole nutrient source, following stabilization on a rich `western’ medium. Microbiota showed rapid responses to the transition from western to fat medium; where a lack of carbohydrates and proteins resulted in decreased community density. Specific members of the microbiota were capable of utilizing long chain fatty acids, including Bilophila, Alistipes, and Escherichia/Shigella. Interestingly, members of the microbiota incapable of metabolizing long chain fatty acids included beneficial microbes Roseburia, Bifidobacterium, and Akkermansia. Ordination and principal response curves analyses highlighted a significant effect of medium change on shifts in microbial composition over time. In conjunction with in vitro studies, human volunteers were enrolled to assess responses of microbiota to diets high in proteins, carbohydrates, or fats. Microarray analysis revealed specific individual host responses to test diets with smaller community wide effects. Increasing the amount of protein in the diet had a positive impact on relative abundance of Akkermansia, Alistipes, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus, while higher carbohydrates and fats resulted in higher abundances of Bifidobacterium, and Alistipes and Escherichia/Shigella, respectively. Together these results indicate that the Human Gut Simulator allows for robust studies of the human gut microbiota, and offers a foundation for conducting nutritional interventions in human subjects.

Dietary Metabolites And The Gut Microbiota An Alternative Approach To Control Inflammatory And Autoimmune Diseases Book PDF
✏Book Title : Dietary Metabolites and the Gut Microbiota an Alternative Approach to Control Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2016
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051830811
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Dietary Metabolites and the Gut Microbiota an Alternative Approach to Control Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases Book Summary : Abstract : It is now convincingly clear that diet is one of the most influential lifestyle factors contributing to the rise of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity in both developed and developing countries. In addition, the modern 'Western diet' has changed in recent years with increased caloric intake, and changes in the relative amounts of dietary components, including lower fibre and higher levels of fat and poor quality of carbohydrates. Diet shapes large‐bowel microbial ecology, and this may be highly relevant to human diseases, as changes in the gut microbiota composition are associated with many inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a remarkable role for diet, the gut microbiota and their metabolites—the short‐chain fatty acids (SCFAs)—in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer and wound‐healing. This review summarizes how diet, microbiota and gut microbial metabolites (particularly SCFAs) can modulate the progression of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity, and reveal the molecular mechanisms (metabolite‐sensing G protein‐coupled receptor (GPCRs) and inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs)). Therefore, considerable benefit could be achieved simply through the use of diet, probiotics and metabolites for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity.

📒The Gut Microbiome ✍ Gyula Mozsik

The Gut Microbiome Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Gut Microbiome
✏Author : Gyula Mozsik
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2016-11-02
✏Pages : 112
✏ISBN : 9789535127505
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Gut Microbiome Book Summary : In the last decades, the importance of gut microbiome has been linked to medical research on different diseases. Developments of other medical disciplines (human clinical pharmacology, clinical nutrition and dietetics, everyday medical treatments of antibiotics, changes in nutritional inhabits in different countries) also called attention to study the changes in the gut microbiome. This book contains five excellent review chapters in the field of gut microbiome, written by researchers from the USA, Canada, China, and India. These chapters present a critical review about some clinically important changes in the gut microbiome in the development of some human diseases and therapeutic possibilities (liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, brain diseases, gastrointestinal diseases). The book brings to attention the essential role of gut microbiome in keeping our life healthy. This book is addressed to experts of microbiology, podiatrists, gastroenterologists, internists, nutritional experts, cardiologists, basic and clinical researchers, as well as experts in the field of food industry.

Ovariectomy Results In Differential Shifts In Gut Microbiota In Low Versus High Aerobic Capacity Rats Book PDF
✏Book Title : Ovariectomy Results in Differential Shifts in Gut Microbiota in Low Versus High Aerobic Capacity Rats
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2015
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051349852
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Ovariectomy Results in Differential Shifts in Gut Microbiota in Low Versus High Aerobic Capacity Rats Book Summary : Abstract The increased risk for cardiometabolic disease with the onset of menopause is widely studied and likely precipitated by the decline in endogenous estradiol (E2), yet the precise mechanisms are unknown. The gut microbiome is involved in estrogen metabolism and has been linked to metabolic disease, suggesting its potential involvement in the postmenopausal phenotype. Furthermore, menopause‐associated risk factors, as well as gut ecology, are altered with exercise. Therefore, we studied microbial changes in an ovariectomized (OVX vs. Sham) rat model of high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity (n=8–10/group) in relation to changes in body weight/composition, glucose tolerance, and liver triglycerides (TG). Nine weeks after OVX, HCR rats were moderately protected against regional adipose tissue gain and liver TG accumulation (P

A Comparative Analysis Of Gut Microbiota On The Human Macaque Interface In Northeast Thailand Book PDF
✏Book Title : A Comparative Analysis of Gut Microbiota on the Human macaque Interface in Northeast Thailand
✏Author : Erica Grant
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages : 24
✏ISBN : OCLC:1081176513
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏A Comparative Analysis of Gut Microbiota on the Human macaque Interface in Northeast Thailand Book Summary : Traditional zoonotic disease research efforts centered on detection of high profile pathogens may miss opportunities to understand broader microbial transmission dynamics between humans, animals, and the environment. The Global Assessment of Zoonotic and Environmental Risks (GAZER) platform seeks to address this knowledge gap by examining overlaps of bacterial microbiome communities between humans, animals, and environments in settings where interaction with animals is high and potential for human health impacts of this contact are greater. This thesis presents data from Maha Sarakham, Thailand, where a growing population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in the Kosumpee Forest Park interface with residents of the adjacent village. In particular, community members working in or near the park experience a high level of direct and indirect contact with macaques through feeding as well as aerosols of macaque feces during cleaning. Workers were surveyed to characterize tasks that contribute to exposure and other dietary or lifestyle factors that influence gut microbiome composition. We employed comparative microbiome analysis based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from DNA extracts of stool samples to assess the degree of similarity between gut bacterial communities and potential for pathogen transmission between macaques and workers. Fecal samples were collected from humans (exposed, n=12; control, n=6) and macaques (exposed, n=8; control, n=4) using the OMNIgene.GUT kit and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform. SourceTrackers was the primary tool to assess degree of microbial sharing between humans and macaques and revealed no significant difference in microbial sharing with macaques between exposed and control humans. Variance detected in PCoA visualizations of the unweighted UniFrac distance were tested using adonis and betadisper to investigate the potential role of the Anna Karenina principle (AKP). Exposed macaque samples exhibited significantly greater dispersion than controls (p