Genetic Resources As Natural Information
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📒Genetic Resources As Natural Information ✍ Manuel Ruiz Muller
✏Genetic Resources as Natural Information Book Summary : Demonstrating the shortcomings of current policy and legal approaches to access and benefit-sharing (ABS) in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), this book recognizes that genetic resources are widely distributed across countries and that bilateral contracts undermine fairness and equity. The book offers a practical and feasible regulatory alternative to ensure the goal of fairness and equity is effectively and efficiently met. Through a legal analysis that also incorporates historic, economic and sociological perspectives, the book argues that genetic resources are not tangible resources but information. It shows that the existing preference for bilateralism and contracts reflects resistance on the part of many of the stakeholders involved in the CBD process to recognize them as such. ABS issues respond very well to the economics of information, yet as the author explains, these have been either sidelined or overlooked. At a time when the Nagoya Protocol on ABS has renewed interest in feasible policy options, the author provides a constructive and provocative critique. The institutional, policy and regulatory framework constitute "bounded openness" under which fairness and equity emerge.
📒Biodiversity Genetic Resources And Intellectual Property ✍ Kamalesh Adhikari
✏Biodiversity Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Book Summary : Debates about Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) have moved on in recent years. An initial focus on the legal obligations established by international agreements like the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and the form of obligations for collecting physical biological materials have now moved to a far more complex series of disputes and challenges about the ways ABS should be implemented and enforced: repatriation of resources, technology transfer, traditional knowledge and cultural expressions; open access to information and knowledge, naming conventions, farmers’ rights, new schemes for accessing pandemic viruses and sharing DNA sequences, and so on. Unfortunately, most of this debate is now crystallised into apparently intractable discussions such as implementing the certificates of origin, recognising traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expression as a form of intellectual property, and sovereignty for Indigenous peoples. Not everything in this new marketplace of ABS has been created de novo. Like most new entrants, ABS has disrupted existing legal and governance arrangements. This collection of chapters examines what is new, what has been changed, and what might be changed in response to the growing acceptance and prevalence of ABS of genetic resources. Biodiversity, Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property: Developments in Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources addresses current issues arising from recent developments in the enduring and topical debates about managing genetic resources through the ABS regime. The book explores key historical, doctrinal, and theoretical issues in the field, at the same time developing new ideas and perspectives around ABS. It shows the latest state of knowledge and will be of interest to researchers, academics, policymakers, and students in the fields of intellectual property, governance, biodiversity and conservation, sustainable development, and agriculture.
📒Global Governance Of Genetic Resources ✍ Sebastian Oberthür
✏Global Governance of Genetic Resources Book Summary : This book analyses the status and prospects of the global governance of Access Benefit Sharing (ABS) in the aftermath of 2010’s Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD’s initial 1992 framework of global ABS governance established the objective of sharing the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources fairly between countries and communities. Since then, ABS has been a contested issue in international politics – not least due to the failure of effective implementation of the original CBD framework. The Nagoya Protocol therefore aims to improve and enhance this framework. Compared to the slow rate of progress on climate change, it has been considered a major achievement of global environmental governance, but it has also been coined a ‘masterpiece of ambiguity’. This book analyses the role of a variety of actors in the emergence of the Nagoya Protocol and provides an up-to-date assessment of the core features of the architecture of global ABS governance. This book offers a central resource regarding ABS governance for those working on and interested in global environmental governance. This is achieved by focusing on two broad themes of the wider research agenda on global environmental governance, namely architecture and agency. Furthermore, individual chapter contributions relate and link ABS governance to other prominent debates in the field, such as institutional complexes, compliance, market-based approaches, EU leadership, the role of small states, the role of non-state actors and more. Partly due to its seeming technical complexity, ABS governance has so far not been at the centre of attention of scholars and practitioners of global environmental governance. In this book, care is taken to provide an accessible account of key functional features of the governance system which enables non-specialists to gain a grasp on the main issues involved, allowing the issue of ABS governance to move centre-stage and be more fully recognised in discussions on global environmental governance.
📒Marine Genetic Resources R D And The Law 1 ✍ Bleuenn Guilloux
✏Marine Genetic Resources R D and the Law 1 Book Summary : Advances in research and development reveal the immense diversity and potential of marine genetic resources. Under international law, no specific regime applies to these complex and paradoxical objects of use. The Law of the Sea Convention sets a framework that is partly inadequate for this new category of resources. The Biodiversity Convention and the Nagoya Protocol only address the genetic resources of national areas. Patents allow their holder to exercise a monopoly on exploiting biotechnological creations to extensive claims, questioning the common nature of biodiversity and related knowledge. They hinder research and the objectives of biodiversity law. The legal and practical rules of physical and functional access vary in geometry. They focus on the valorization of research results, crystallizing conflicts of interest between suppliers and users. Sustainable research and development is essential to the knowledge and protection of marine biodiversity. The qualification of marine genetic resources in common, standard contractual tools, distributed research and development infrastructures, negotiation of an agreement on sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, would To remove these inconsistencies.
📒Crop Genetic Resources For Today And Tomorrow ✍ O. H. Frankel
✏Crop Genetic Resources for Today and Tomorrow Book Summary : Genetic variation in plant populations; Exploration; Evaluation problems; Conservation and storage; Documentation and information management; Genetic resources centres.
📒International Exchange Of Genetic Resources The Role Of Information And Implications For Ownership The Case Of The U S National Plant Germplasm System ✍ Kelly Day Rubenstein and Melinda Smale
✏Author : Kelly Day Rubenstein and Melinda Smale
✏Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
✏Release Date :
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French
✏International Exchange of Genetic Resources the Role of Information and Implications for Ownership The Case of the U S National Plant Germplasm System Book Summary :
📒Conservation Of Genetic Resources ✍ Detlef Virchow
✏Conservation of Genetic Resources Book Summary : Over the past decade the importance of natural resources for sustainable agricultural development has been increasingly discussed at international forums and conferences. Aside from the sustainable management of soil, water, and air, it now seems to be accepted that the sustainable management of genetic resources is one of the four indispensable preconditions for a sustainable agriculture. The discussion on conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), however, has to reflect the costs of conservation as well. These have not yet been discussed intensively. The study analyzes the conservation costs of plant genetic resources; it also assesses the effectiveness of conservation and the efficiency of the different conservation instruments. It is based on extensive surveys in relevant countries. Following the detailed cost and impact analysis, the results show that the effectiveness of conservation strategies may be increased.
✏A Guide to Designing Legal Frameworks to Determine Access to Genetic Resources Book Summary : This book highlights some of the principles which should be considered by planners, legislative drafters, and policy-makers as they work to develop legal frameworks on access to genetic resources in their countries. Contextual information on the Convention on Biological Diversity and examples of how countries have approached the issue to date are provided.
✏Genetic Resources Chromosome Engineering and Crop Improvement Book Summary : Medicinal Plants, Volume 6 of the Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement series summarizes landmark research and describes medicinal plants as nature’s pharmacy. Highlights Examines the use of molecular technology for maintaining authenticity and quality of plant-based products Details reports on individual medicinal plants including their history, origin, genetic resources, cytogenetics, and varietal improvement through conventional and modern methods, and their use in pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, nutrition, and food industries Explains how to protect plants with medicinal properties from deforestation, urbanization, overgrazing, pollution, overharvesting, and biopiracy Brings together information on germplasm resources of medicinal plants, their history, taxonomy and biogeography, ecology and biodiversity, genetics and breeding, exploitation, and utilization in the medicine and food industries Written by leading international experts and an innovative panel of scientists, Medicinal Plants offers the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on medicinal plant genetic resources and their increasing importance in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries, medicine, and nutrition around the world. Includes eight-page color insert more than 25 full color figures
📒East Asia Integrates ✍ Kathie Krumm
✏East Asia Integrates Book Summary : Emerging East Asian economies have seen their share of world exports more than triple during the past quarter-century, and intraregional trade has driven this growth. Broad measures of development in East Asia have improved at the same headlong pace. Why push further integration now? Two economic events of historic proportions provide the context: strategic thinking of development in the region following the East Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 and the accession of China to the World Trade Organization. Policymakers interested in a stable, prosperous region are concerned by mildly rising inequality within countries and a widening gap between richer economies and the poorest economies. Increasingly, the development agenda in the region with its focus on growth, jobs, and social stability and the trade policy agenda with its focus on market access and competitiveness have become intertwined. East Asian policymakers seek to develop a coherent set of economic policies that can deliver stability, growth, and regional integration. Without attempting to be comprehensive, 'East Asia Integrates' offers fundamental strategies that promote cross-border flows of trade, along with domestic policies on logistics, trade facilitation, standards and institutions to maximize the impact of these flows on development and distribute the gains from trade widely. As the authors demonstrate, multilateral and regional trade initiatives must provide a compelling vision of how integration can deliver broadly shared growth and prosperity if they are to succeed. In addition, they must use the momentum offered by trade agreements to address the links between trade on the one hand, and social stability, poverty reduction, and growth on the other.