Energy Potential Of The Russian Arctic Seas

Energy Potential Of The Russian Arctic Seas Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Potential of the Russian Arctic Seas
✏Author : Alexey Piskarev
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2012
✏Pages : 425
✏ISBN : 9780444537843
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Potential of the Russian Arctic Seas Book Summary : The structure of sedimentary basins of the Russian Arctic Seas is studied and illustrated by a number of maps, cross-sections and geophysical models. The calculated density models of the Earth crust illustrate the deep structure of the main blocks of the crust. Five major gas-condensate and gas fields are discovered here: three (Shtokman, Ludlov, Ledovoe) in the Barents and two (Leningrad and Rusanov) in the Kara Sea. Geological and geophysical characteristics of the Russian Arctic Sea sedimentary basins allow an estimation of their hydrocarbon potential by comparison with the known world analogues. Total potential resources of giant deposits of hydrocarbons in Russian Arctic Seas are estimated at 470 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The richest resources are the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea. Less rich is Barents Sea. The relatively smaller contribution to the overall estimation of the resources makes the resources of East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. Development the energy capacity of the continental shelf of Russia can play a stabilizing role in the dynamics of oil and gas production in the period 2010-2020. A key role in developing the capacity of the Arctic shelf oil and gas play is the innovative technology in exploration, production and management of the relevant investment projects. World offshore experience indicates that the combination of these factors is achieved through the formation of international firms and organizations. Comprehensively assesses the potential oil and gas resources in sedimentary basins within the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean Describes the economic and legal challenges to the development of offshore fields in Russia Explores possible ways and timing to maKe these hydrocarbon resources available to the global market

Renewable Energy And Power Supply Challenges For Rural Regions Book PDF
✏Book Title : Renewable Energy and Power Supply Challenges for Rural Regions
✏Author : Kharchenko, Valeriy
✏Publisher : IGI Global
✏Release Date : 2019-03-22
✏Pages : 432
✏ISBN : 9781522591818
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Renewable Energy and Power Supply Challenges for Rural Regions Book Summary : Access to power and electricity is a vital resource for businesses and for sustaining the livelihood of consumers. However, producing reliable and renewable energy and distributing it in rural areas can be challenging. Such activities require special technical support measures for organizing a highly efficient and cost-effective production process. Renewable Energy and Power Supply Challenges for Rural Regions provides innovative insights into energy production, consumption, and distribution in rural regions and examines sustainable and renewable power sources. The content within this publication explores such topics as renewable energy, electrical network, and thermal energy storage. It is designed for electricians, policymakers, state officials, professionals, researchers, and academicians.

Carbon Cycle In The Russian Arctic Seas Book PDF
✏Book Title : Carbon Cycle in the Russian Arctic Seas
✏Author : Alexander Vetrov
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-03-09
✏Pages : 334
✏ISBN : 9783662062081
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Carbon Cycle in the Russian Arctic Seas Book Summary : This study analyzes carbon-cycle conditions controlling the state of the Arctic ecosystem and their seasonal variations. Territory covered includes the Barents, White, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas, considering inter-correlations between sources of organic carbon, their fluxes, recycling and burial in bottom sediments. All biological communities (phythoplankton, macrophythobenthos, microphythobentos, bacterioplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos) are taken into account regarding their participation in the carbon cycle.

Natural Gas Hydrate Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential Book PDF
✏Book Title : Natural Gas Hydrate Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential
✏Author : Michael D. Max
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-10-11
✏Pages : 113
✏ISBN : 9783319025087
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Natural Gas Hydrate Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential Book Summary : The book is an up-to-date basic reference for natural gas hydrate (NGH) in the Arctic Ocean. Geographical, geological, environmental, energy, new technology, and regulatory matters are discussed. The book should be of interest to general readers and scientists and students as well as industry and government agencies concerned with energy and ocean management. NGH is a solid crystalline material that compresses gas by about a factor of about 164 during crystallization from natural gas (mainly methane) - rich pore waters over time. NGH displaces water and may form large concentrations in sediment pore space. Its formation introduces changes in the geotechnical character of host sediment that allows it to be distinguished by seismic and electric exploration methods. The chemical reaction that forms NGH from gas and water molecules is highly reversible, which allows controlled conversion of the NGH to its constituent gas and water. This can be achieved rapidly by one of a number of processes including heating, depressurization, inhibitor injection, dissolution, and molecular replacement. The produced gas has the potential to make NGH a valuable unconventional natural gas resource, and perhaps the largest on earth. Estimates for NGH distribution, concentration, economic targets, and volumes in the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by restricting the economic target to deepwater turbidite sands, which are also sediment hosts for more deeply buried conventional hydrocarbon deposits. Resource base estimates are based on NGH petroleum system analysis approach using industry-standard parameters along with analogs from three relatively well known examples (Nankai-Japan, Gulf of Mexico-United States, and Arctic permafrost hydrate). Drilling data has substantiated new geotechnical-level seismic analysis techniques for estimating not just the presence of NGH but prospect volumes. In addition to a volumetric estimate for NGH having economic potential, a sedimentary depositional model is proposed to aid exploration in the five different regions around the deep central Arctic Ocean basin. Related topics are also discussed. Transport and logistics for NGH may also be applicable for stranded conventional gas and oil deposits. Arising from a discussion of new technology and methodologies that could be applied to developing NGH, suggestions are made for the lowering of exploration and capital expenses that could make NGH competitive on a produced cost basis. The basis for the extraordinarily low environmental risk for exploration and production of NGH is discussed, especially with respect to the environmentally fragile Arctic region. It is suggested that because of the low environmental risk, special regulations could be written that would provide a framework for very low cost and safe development.

Measuring Sustainable Development The Energy Extraction In The European Arctic Ocean Book PDF
✏Book Title : Measuring Sustainable Development The Energy Extraction in the European Arctic Ocean
✏Author : Christin Fund
✏Publisher : GRIN Verlag
✏Release Date : 2015-04-21
✏Pages : 170
✏ISBN : 9783656946465
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Measuring Sustainable Development The Energy Extraction in the European Arctic Ocean Book Summary : Master's Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Energy Sciences, grade: 1,3, Dresden Technical University (Department of Economic Policy and Economic Research), course: Internationale Beziehungen, language: English, abstract: The Arctic is probably the only region in the world that has as of yet been largely spared from human activities. This is primarily caused by its extreme environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the region hosts a unique biodiversity that is of significant social, economic and cultural importance to local communities. Today, the Arctic is increasingly regarded as key region in a globalised world. In the same time, the Arctic faces various challenges in the 21th century including the search for natural resources, global warming and environmental protection, as well as the emergence of shipping routes and the establishment of tourist centres (Berkman 2012). It is well-known that the world’s increasing demand for energy resources goes hand in hand with the growing world population and the significant importance of emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India. Furthermore, a decrease of oil production can be observed in major oil producing regions, whereas oil prices will increase in the long-term and the provision of energy resources will be prospectively concentrated in alternative regions. For a long time, energy extraction in the Arctic appeared non-economical, because of harsh weather conditions and the need for high technical standards – though this might change in the near future. Changing climate in general and rising temperatures in particular result in the melting of sea ice. As a consequence, this process implies new economic opportunities for energy extraction activities in the once ice-covered Arctic Ocean. The potential for undiscovered offshore energy deposits is already recognised, but the Arctic Ocean is gaining further importance for other future energy extraction activities as well. It can be assumed that the production of energy from offshore development will continue to increase considerably in the future. Based on the considerations to ensure long-term sustainable development in the Arctic Ocean, this study aims to analyse if sustainable development is generally measureable in this region. The study pursues a European perspective and focuses on the commercial exploitation (oil and gas activities) of the European Arctic Ocean.

Russia In The Arctic Book PDF
✏Book Title : Russia in the Arctic
✏Author :
✏Publisher : Strategic Studies Institute
✏Release Date : 2011-01-01
✏Pages : 141
✏ISBN : 9781584874966
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Russia in the Arctic Book Summary : The Arctic is the newest sphere of international competition for energy and security access. It pits Russia against the other Arctic states. These essays fully explore and analyze what is at stake here and what Moscow has done to increase its capability and influence in the Arctic.

Russian Approaches To International Law Book PDF
✏Book Title : Russian Approaches to International Law
✏Author : Lauri Mälksoo
✏Publisher : OUP Oxford
✏Release Date : 2015-03-05
✏Pages : 290
✏ISBN : 9780191034695
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Russian Approaches to International Law Book Summary : This book addresses a simple question: how do Russians understand international law? Is it the same understanding as in the West or is it in some ways different and if so, why? It answers these questions by drawing on from three different yet closely interconnected perspectives: history, theory, and recent state practice. The work uses comparative international law as starting point and argues that in order to understand post-Soviet Russia's state and scholarly approaches to international law, one should take into account the history of ideas in Russia. To an extent, Russian understandings of international law differ from what is considered the mainstream in the West. One specific feature of this book is that it goes inside the language of international law as it is spoken and discussed in post-Soviet Russia, especially the scholarly literature in the Russian language, and relates this literature to the history of international law as discipline in Russia. Recent state practice such as the annexation of Crimea in 2014, Russia's record in the UN Security Council, the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, prominent cases in investor-state arbitration, and the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union are laid out and discussed in the context of increasingly popular 'civilizational' ideas, the claim that Russia is a unique civilization and therefore not part of the West. The implications of this claim for the future of international law, its universality, and regionalism are discussed.

📒The Risk Pivot ✍ Bruce D. Jones

The Risk Pivot Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Risk Pivot
✏Author : Bruce D. Jones
✏Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
✏Release Date : 2014-11-21
✏Pages : 206
✏ISBN : 9780815726050
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Risk Pivot Book Summary : The last decade has seen a revolution in global energy. First, we saw explosive growth in demand from Asia's rising powers, which fueled fears about scarcity and conflict. But we've also seen an American revolution in technology and markets, resulting in a dramatic increase in sup-ply. This is strengthening America's hand in the world—but it's not without complications. There are major security consequences of these shifts. Among the most consequential are China and India, Asia's emerging giants, which are increasingly exposed to political risks associated with energy risks, as well as the energy flows, pivoting to Asia. Meanwhile the great powers struggle to balance their need for fossil fuels with a mounting effort to tackle climate change. The top powers, and the United States above all, face a stra-tegic choice: whether to use energy as a weapon of geopolitics, or as a tool of a stable order. CONTENTS Introduction 1. The President and the King—Key Messages of the Book 2. The Energy Revolutions—A Primer Geopolitics in Flux—The Players 3. Choices—Scenarios, and the Choice the Powers Confront 4. Rough Seas Ahead—The Great Powers' Search for Energy Security Globalization and Complexity—The Problems 5. Transition in the Gulf 6. The Turbulent Middle 7. Fragile States 8. The Russian Problem 9. Connections—from Pipelines to Politics Governance—The Partners 10. An Emerging System of Global Energy Governance 11. Leadership Choices

Security And Sovereignty In The North Atlantic Book PDF
✏Book Title : Security and Sovereignty in the North Atlantic
✏Author : L. Heininen
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2014-11-21
✏Pages : 126
✏ISBN : 9781137470720
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Security and Sovereignty in the North Atlantic Book Summary : The North Atlantic continues to be an area of international strategic significance regionally and globally. This study explores the strong processes of sovereignty, as well as new independent states and micro-proto-states that are forming in the region.

📒Still Ours To Lead ✍ Bruce D. Jones

Still Ours To Lead Book PDF
✏Book Title : Still Ours to Lead
✏Author : Bruce D. Jones
✏Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
✏Release Date : 2014-03-17
✏Pages : 263
✏ISBN : 9780815725138
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Still Ours to Lead Book Summary : Is the United States still a "superpower"? How are the rising powers establishing themselves in international politics and security? What is the future of global stability? For over a decade, Bruce Jones has had a front-row seat as the emerging powers—principally China, India, and Brazil, but also Turkey, Indonesia, Korea, and others—thrust themselves onto the global stage. From Delhi to Doha to Beijing to Brasilia, he's met with the politicians, diplomats, business leaders, and scholars of those powers as they craft their strategies for rising influence—and with senior American officials as they forge their response. In Still Ours to Lead, Jones tells a nuanced story of American leadership. He artfully examines the tension between the impulse to rival the United States and the incentives for restraint and cooperation among the rising powers. That balance of rivalry and restraint provides the United States with a continued ability to solve problems and to manage crises at roughly the same rate as when American dominance was unquestioned. Maintaining the balance is central to the question of whether we will live in a stable or unstable system in the period to come. But it just so happens that this challenge plays to America's unique strength—its unparalleled ability to pull together broad and disparate coalitions for action. To succeed, America must adapt its leadership to new realities.

📒The Arctic Gold Rush ✍ Roger Howard

The Arctic Gold Rush Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Arctic Gold Rush
✏Author : Roger Howard
✏Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
✏Release Date : 2010-06-01
✏Pages : 272
✏ISBN : 9781441110367
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Arctic Gold Rush Book Summary : An exploration of the political significance of the Arctic's vast untapped wealth of natural resources, and a gripping account of the race to exploit them On August 2, 2007, a Russian submarine captured world headlines by making a dangerous journey to the bottom of the Arctic seabed and planting a metal, rustfree national flag more than 14,000 feet beneath the North Pole. The aim was to assert Russia's legal sovereignty over a region whose importance had only recently started to become apparent as its melting ice had made, or was expected to make, vast natural resources open to exploitation. The latest estimates are that the region holds around 13% of the world's undiscovered oil and as much as 30% of undiscovered natural gas reserves that would be hugely profitable for any country that managed to secure control over them. Gold, platinum, copper, and other precious metals have also been found along the coast. Neighboring countries - Russia, the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Norway - are already doing everything they can to mark out new borders. The ensuing political disagreements over the issue are already rife. In particular, games of political intrigue between Moscow and Washington are being played out in the region. But as the world's resources become increasingly scarce and valuable, could the scramble for Arctic resources become violent? Could a "War for the Arctic" be fought? Praise for The Oil Hunters: "The Dramatic Days of oil exploration in the first half of the 20th century are narrated in gripping fashion by Roger Howard." -The Spectator "A fascinating story for anyone interested in one of today's main economic problems: How to reduce the hundreds of billions that Americans spend every year to import oil...the book is packed with intrepid geologists, risk-averse business people, hardup Mideast rulers and ingenious promoters- all concerned with driving up profits."-The Associated Press

Polar Energy Resources Potential Book PDF
✏Book Title : Polar Energy Resources Potential
✏Author : Joseph P. Riva
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1977
✏Pages : 178
✏ISBN : UOM:39015078683417
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Polar Energy Resources Potential Book Summary :

Russia And European Energy Security Book PDF
✏Book Title : Russia and European Energy Security
✏Author : Keith C. Smith
✏Publisher : CSIS
✏Release Date : 2008
✏Pages : 26
✏ISBN : 0892065559
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Russia and European Energy Security Book Summary : Officials of the Putin/Medvedev administration routinely deny that Russia employs its energy resources for political purposes. But Russia's actions demonstrate again and again that the Kremlin leadership will use its enormous energy wealth to increase its political and economic influence in Europe and the wider world. This should not come as a surprise to European officials.Many European policymakers have come to believe that their countries are so dependent economically on Russia that they have no choice but to defer to Moscow in order to ensure future supplies of Russian oil and gas. This opinion prevails in spite of the fact that today's Russia is significantly weaker economically than any large European state, with the exception of Ukraine. With its huge energy resources, Moscow appears to be playing with a stronger hand in East-West economic relations than Brussels, Berlin, or Paris. Europe's “soft power” has turned out to be less influential with Moscow than many expected. And neither Europe nor the United States has been able to reverse the rush toward authoritarianism in Russia.The purpose of this report is to encourage greater European and American cooperation on issues of energy security, particularly as they relate to Russian suppliers, and to highlight Moscow's policies regarding the use of its enormous energy potential to affect political and security events in Europe. The war in Georgia, whatever the arguments concerning who shot first, is part of a Kremlin strategy to discourage the building of gas pipelines from Caspian countries to Europe, in the process bypassing Russian territory and Russia's control of Central Asian supplies. Without a more aggressive competition policy, Europe will lose much of its ability to lead the Continent toward greater integration and cooperation.The present situation only reinforces the impression in Moscow that transparent, competitive energy trade policies are unnecessary and would curb the extremely high rents now collected by Russian elites. In the long run, however, the current policies of the Kremlin will lead to greater suspicion of its motives, delay the development of a modern energy sector in Russia, and as a result, delay the country's integration into a democratic league of nations within Europe.

Geologic Structures Of The Arctic Basin Book PDF
✏Book Title : Geologic Structures of the Arctic Basin
✏Author : Alexey Piskarev
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2018-06-11
✏Pages : 375
✏ISBN : 9783319777429
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Geologic Structures of the Arctic Basin Book Summary : This book contains the most complete description of the geologic and geophysical data of the structure of Arctic Basin including structures of the earth’s crust, crustal and acoustic basement, and sedimentary cover. The book includes information about extracted and studied cores and samples; observed, processed and interpreted data on geophysical anomalies and different conceptions, and a hypotheses of the origin of the modern Arctic Basin structures. Progress in solving the problems of the Arctic Basin geology is presented in the chapters and include contributions from leading field experts.

Energy Security And Geopolitics In The Arctic Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Security and Geopolitics in the Arctic
✏Author : Hooman Peimani
✏Publisher : World Scientific
✏Release Date : 2013
✏Pages : 320
✏ISBN : 9789814401470
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Security and Geopolitics in the Arctic Book Summary : This book sheds light on how global warming has caused the ongoing environmental disaster in the Arctic, namely its melting. It offers insights on the issues that have grave implications for energy security and geopolitics in the arctic.

Environmental Change And Globalization Double Exposures Book PDF
✏Book Title : Environmental Change and Globalization Double Exposures
✏Author : Robin Leichenko
✏Publisher : Oxford University Press
✏Release Date : 2008-08-28
✏Pages : 192
✏ISBN : 9780199884261
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Environmental Change and Globalization Double Exposures Book Summary : This book explores the connections between two of the most transformative processes of the twenty-first century, namely climate change and globalization. In this book, Leichenko and O'Brien present a conceptual framework for analyzing the interactions between these two processes, and illustrate, through case studies, how these interactions create situations of "double exposure." Drawing upon prominent recent and current climate-related events -- Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, recurring droughts in India, and the melting of Arctic sea ice -- the case studies each demonstrate a different pathway of interaction between globalization and global environmental change. Through exploration of these pathways of double exposure, the book also shows how broader human security concerns including growing inequalities, growing vulnerabilities, and unsustainable rates of development are integrally connected to both processes of global change. The double exposure framework not only sheds light on the challenges raised by these two global processes, but also reveals possibilities for using the interactions to generate positive opportunities for action.

Russia S Arctic Strategies And The Future Of The Far North Book PDF
✏Book Title : Russia s Arctic Strategies and the Future of the Far North
✏Author : Marlene Laruelle
✏Publisher : Routledge
✏Release Date : 2015-01-28
✏Pages : 280
✏ISBN : 9781317460343
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Russia s Arctic Strategies and the Future of the Far North Book Summary : This book offers the first comprehensive examination of Russia's Arctic strategy, ranging from climate change issues and territorial disputes to energy policy and domestic challenges. As the receding polar ice increases the accessibility of the Arctic region, rival powers have been manoeuvering for geopolitical and resource security. Geographically, Russia controls half of the Arctic coastline, 40 percent of the land area beyond the Circumpolar North, and three quarters of the Arctic population. In total, the sea and land surface area of the Russian Arctic is about 6 million square kilometres. Economically, as much as 20 percent of Russia's GDP and its total exports is generated north of the Arctic Circle. In terms of resources, about 95 percent of its gas, 75 percent of its oil, 96 percent of its platinum, 90 percent of its nickel and cobalt, and 60 percent of its copper reserves are found in Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions. Add to this the riches of the continental shelf, seabed, and waters, ranging from rare earth minerals to fish stocks. After a spike of aggressive rhetoric when Russia planted its flag in the Arctic seabed in 2007, Moscow has attempted to strengthen its position as a key factor in developing an international consensus concerning a region where its relative advantages are manifest, despite its diminishing military, technological, and human capacities.

World Energy Outlook Book PDF
✏Book Title : World Energy Outlook
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2011
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : NYPL:33433088928142
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏World Energy Outlook Book Summary :

📒Energy Policies Of The Russian Federation ✍ International Energy Agency

Energy Policies Of The Russian Federation Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Policies of the Russian Federation
✏Author : International Energy Agency
✏Publisher : Organization for Economic
✏Release Date : 1995
✏Pages : 323
✏ISBN : UOM:39015034519473
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Policies of the Russian Federation Book Summary :

📒Global Arctic ✍ Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

Global Arctic Book PDF
✏Book Title : Global Arctic
✏Author : Scott Nicholas Romaniuk
✏Publisher : Berkshire Academic PressLtd
✏Release Date : 2013
✏Pages : 269
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822038727566
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Global Arctic Book Summary : "As the Arctic undergoes strident change, it is becoming a hotly contested region attracting unprecedented international attention. Rising temperatures, accessibility to vital resources, questions of sovereignty and jurisdiction, and the need to secure national interests in a global era have led to a host of states vying for Arctic dominance. The strategic value of the Arctic is underscored by the contrasting pursuits of Arctic nations and their determination to fulfill and defend their strategic interests by whatever means necessary. Despite rhetoric from Canada, Russia, Norway, the United States, and Denmark that peaceful and cooperative efforts will define the future of the region, its value cannot be ignored.

Eddies Of The Western Arctic Ocean Book PDF
✏Book Title : Eddies of the Western Arctic Ocean
✏Author : Thomas Owen Manley
✏Publisher : Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International
✏Release Date : 1981
✏Pages : 424
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822028339075
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Eddies of the Western Arctic Ocean Book Summary : With the undertaking of the main 1975-76 AIDJEX experiment located in the central Beaufort Sea, four manned camps collected for one year the largest and most complete set of oceanographic data within the Arctic Ocean to this date. During this time, a total of 146 separate crossings of eddies were observed. using T-S signatures, 31 of the 146 crossings are found to represent duplicate crossings of 12 individual eddies, making a total of 127 separate eddies observed during the one year. On the basis of the AIDJEX data set, arctic eddies have been found to: (1) be prevalent in the Amerasia Basin and in particular the Beaufort Sea, (2) predominantly reside in the depth range of 50 to 300 meters although deeper eddies are also present, (3) contain more than half of the total amount of kinetic energy in the upper 200 m of the Beaufort Sea, (4) transfer kinetic energy to the mean flow, (5) be predominately anticyclonic in their rotational tendency, (6) apparently originate north of Point Barrow, Alaska as a result of instability in the eastward flowing Alaskan Coastal Current although there are a few eddies in which T-S data may indicate the possibility of local origin, (7) transfer fresher, less saline water into the deep Arctic Ocean from the Chukchi Sea, (8) transfer both warm and cold water into the deep Arctic Ocean in response to the seasonally changing shelf conditions, (9) translate in response to barotropic forcing over short time scales, although over longer time periods move with the mean geostrophic field, and (10) decay in a clockwise pattern from their point of origin, which is consistent with the upper layer movement of the Beaufort Sea.

Great Decisions Book PDF
✏Book Title : Great Decisions
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2009
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : WISC:89107706467
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Great Decisions Book Summary :

Petroleum Review Book PDF
✏Book Title : Petroleum Review
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2008
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : CORNELL:31924092763444
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Petroleum Review Book Summary :

The 21st Century Turning Point For The Northern Sea Route  Book PDF
✏Book Title : The 21st Century Turning Point for the Northern Sea Route
✏Author : Claes Lykke Ragner
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2000-08-31
✏Pages : 308
✏ISBN : 0792363655
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The 21st Century Turning Point for the Northern Sea Route Book Summary : The Northern Sea Route - the ice infested sea lanes running north of Siberia - can potentially cut sailing distances between Northwest Europe and Northeast Asia by as much as 50% compared with present routes. Further, the route passes some of the world's largest deposits of oil and gas. Several recent multimillion dollar research programmes have investigated the route's commercial, technological and commercial feasibility. The results of this research were presented to the Northern Sea Route User Conference in Oslo, November 1999. The Conference was also told about new Russian policies on the route. The research results and Russian policy statements were assessed and commented on by representatives of international shipping organisations, who also proposed the shipping industry's own view of the commercial feasibility of the NSR. The present book, derived from the Conference, discusses the question of international shipping on the NSR more comprehensively than has ever been witnessed before, not only as a matter of theoretical research but also as a practical matter, assessed in commercial, political and maritime terms. Readership: All those interested in the NSR, whether as a business opportunity or an object of research or environmental concern.

📒Energy Policies Of Iea Countries ✍ International Energy Agency

Energy Policies Of Iea Countries Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Policies of IEA Countries
✏Author : International Energy Agency
✏Publisher : Organization for Economic
✏Release Date : 2010
✏Pages : 260
✏ISBN : 926406043X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Policies of IEA Countries Book Summary : The International Energy Agency's comprehensive 2010 review of Belgium's energy policies and programmes. It finds that Belgium is making commendable progress towards a clean and sustainable energy future. Energy intensity has recently declined, as have greenhouse gas emissions. Measures have been implemented to promote energy efficiency. Public funding for energy R& D has risen substantially. Energy security measures have been reinforced for different fuels, and an integrated emergency response policy is under development. Market reforms are advancing in both the electricity and gas sectors. Belgian energy policies are playing an increasingly important role in ensuring energy security not only in the country but also in northwest Europe. The country strategic location makes it an important transit hub for natural gas, oil and electricity. Nevertheless, challenges remain. A comprehensive, national strategy is needed to stimulate investment and adequately address energy security and climate change concerns. The Belgian position on the phase out of nuclear power should be reconsidered. The government should also try, through increased market transparency and streamlined planning procedures, to ensure that investment in new generation capacity is an attractive option for new players as well as incumbents. The overlapping responsibilities of the federal and regional governments reduce the cost-effectiveness of policies. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Belgium and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to serve as a guide as the country continues on its way towards a more sustainable energy future. Available at: http://www.iea.org/publications/free_new_Desc.asp?PUBS_ID=2353.

📒Mr Putin ✍ Fiona Hill

Mr Putin Book PDF
✏Book Title : Mr Putin
✏Author : Fiona Hill
✏Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
✏Release Date : 2015-02-02
✏Pages : 533
✏ISBN : 9780815726180
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Mr Putin Book Summary : From the KGB to the Kremlin: a multidimensional portrait of the man at war with the West. Where do Vladimir Putin's ideas come from? How does he look at the outside world? What does he want, and how far is he willing to go? The great lesson of the outbreak of World War I in 1914 was the danger of misreading the statements, actions, and intentions of the adversary. Today, Vladimir Putin has become the greatest challenge to European security and the global world order in decades. Russia's 8,000 nuclear weapons underscore the huge risks of not understanding who Putin is. Featuring five new chapters, this new edition dispels potentially dangerous misconceptions about Putin and offers a clear-eyed look at his objectives. It presents Putin as a reflection of deeply ingrained Russian ways of thinking as well as his unique personal background and experience. Praise for the first edition If you want to begin to understand Russia today, read this book. —Sir John Scarlett, former chief of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) For anyone wishing to understand Russia's evolution since the breakup of the Soviet Union and its trajectory since then, the book you hold in your hand is an essential guide.—John McLaughlin, former deputy director of U.S. Central Intelligence Of the many biographies of Vladimir Putin that have appeared in recent years, this one is the most useful. —Foreign Affairs This is not just another Putin biography. It is a psychological portrait. —The Financial Times Q: Do you have time to read books? If so, which ones would you recommend? "My goodness, let's see. There's Mr. Putin, by Fiona Hill and Clifford Gaddy. Insightful." —Vice President Joseph Biden in Joe Biden: The Rolling Stone Interview.

📒Global Power Europe Vol 2 ✍ Astrid Boening

Global Power Europe Vol 2 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Global Power Europe Vol 2
✏Author : Astrid Boening
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-03-27
✏Pages : 344
✏ISBN : 9783642324161
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Global Power Europe Vol 2 Book Summary : This two-volume project provides a multi-sectoral perspective over the EU's external projections from traditional as well as critical theoretical and institutional perspectives, and is supported by numerous case studies covering the whole extent of the EU’s external relations. The aim is to strive to present new approaches as well as detailed background studies in analyzing the EU as a global actor. Volume 1: The first volume “Theoretical and Institutional Approaches to the EU’s External Relations” addresses the EU's overall external post-Lisbon Treaty presence both globally and regionally (e.g. in its "neighborhood"), with a special emphasis on the EU’s institutional framework. It also offers fresh and innovative theoretical approaches to understanding the EU’s international position. - With a preface by Alvaro de Vasoncelos (former Director European Union Institute for Security Studies) Volume 2: The second volume “Policies, Actions and Influence of the EU’s External Relations”, examines in both quantitative and qualitative contributions the EU's international efficacy from a political, economic and social perspective based on a plethora of its engagements.

📒Arctic Thaw ✍ Stephanie Sammartino McPherson

Arctic Thaw Book PDF
✏Book Title : Arctic Thaw
✏Author : Stephanie Sammartino McPherson
✏Publisher : Lerner Publishing Group
✏Release Date : 2014-10-01
✏Pages : 64
✏ISBN : 9781467720434
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Arctic Thaw Book Summary : Ice in the Arctic is disappearing?and opportunity is calling. As climate change transforms the top of the world, warmer conditions are exposing a treasure trove of energy resources previously trapped in ice. The Arctic's oil, natural gas, minerals, and even wind and hydroelectric power are becoming more accessible than ever before. With untold riches hanging in the balance, the race is on to control the Arctic and its energy potential. Oil companies vie for drilling rights that go to the highest bidder. Nations around the globe?whether they're on the Arctic's doorstep or half a world away?hope to claim territory for themselves. And the indigenous peoples who have called this region home for thousands of years are determined to be on the ground floor of its development. But the Arctic's new possibilities come with grave risks. The pursuit of oil and natural gas threatens to further damage the Arctic's fragile ecosystems and accelerate global warming worldwide. International disputes over who owns which pieces of the Arctic could bring countries to the brink of war. The fate of the entire planet may hinge on how far people are willing to go to tap and control the Far North's energy resources. From oil rigs to military bases, the Arctic has never before hosted so many warring interests, and the stakes have never been so high. Join Stephanie Sammartino McPherson on a journey to the Far North to explore the energy controversies that will decide the future of the Arctic?and of the earth.

Petroleum Accumulation Zones On Continental Margins Book PDF
✏Book Title : Petroleum Accumulation Zones on Continental Margins
✏Author : Y. N. Grigorenko
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2012-11-07
✏Pages : 448
✏ISBN : 9781118533390
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Petroleum Accumulation Zones on Continental Margins Book Summary : Much of the world’s petroleum is located on continental margins, and any further development of these offshore deposits would be impossible without new technologies and new methods contained in this volume. Written by some of the world’s foremost authorities on oil and gas, this volume explains for the practicing engineer and the engineering student some of the most important and cutting-edge techniques for developing offshore fields on continental margins.

The Freshwater Budget Of The Arctic Ocean Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean
✏Author : E. Peter Jones
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2000
✏Pages : 623
✏ISBN : 0792364392
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean Book Summary : The hydrological cycle of the Arctic Ocean has intimate and complex linkages to global climate: changes in one affect the other, usually with a feedback. The combined effects of large river runoff, advection of meteoric water, low evaporation rates and distillation by freezing contribute to the formation of a strong halocline in the upper Arctic ocean, which limits thermal communication between the sea ice and the warmer waters of Atlantic origin below. Sea ice and freshened surface waters are transported from the marginal seas by winds and currents, ultimately exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram and Davis Straits. Variations in the freshwater outflow from these regions affect the density structure of the Arctic Ocean itself and so the surface heat balance. Another feedback is the effect these variations have on the density profile of the water column in the Greenland and Labrador seas where, at present, convection takes place mixing surface waters downwards with those at greater depth. This downward convective motion produces dense deep waters that flow outwards from these two centres and affect the entire North Atlantic.