Electrochemistry In Light Water Reactors

Electrochemistry In Light Water Reactors Book PDF
✏Book Title : Electrochemistry in Light Water Reactors
✏Author : R-W Bosch
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2007-04-30
✏Pages : 240
✏ISBN : 9781845693022
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Electrochemistry in Light Water Reactors Book Summary : There has long been a need for effective methods of measuring corrosion within light water nuclear reactors. This important volume discusses key issues surrounding the development of high temperature reference electrodes and other electrochemical techniques. The book is divided into three parts with part one reviewing the latest developments in the use of reference electrode technology in both pressurised water and boiling water reactors. Parts two and three cover different types of corrosion and tribocorrosion and ways they can be measured using such techniques as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Topics covered across the book include in-pile testing, modelling techniques and the tribocorrosion behaviour of stainless steel under reactor conditions. Electrochemistry in light water reactors is a valuable reference for all those concerned with corrosion problems in this key technology for the power industry. Discusses key issues surrounding the development of high temperature reference eletrodes A valuable reference for all concerned with corrosion problems in this key technology

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy And Its Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and its Applications
✏Author : Andrzej Lasia
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2014-06-17
✏Pages : 367
✏ISBN : 9781461489337
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and its Applications Book Summary : This book presents a complete overview of the powerful but often misused technique of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The book presents a systematic and complete overview of EIS. The book carefully describes EIS and its application in studies of electrocatalytic reactions and other electrochemical processes of practical interest. This book is directed towards graduate students and researchers in Electrochemistry. Concepts are illustrated through detailed graphics and numerous examples. The book also includes practice problems. Additional materials and solutions are available online.

The Radiochemistry Of Nuclear Power Plants With Light Water Reactors Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Radiochemistry of Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors
✏Author : Karl-Heinz Neeb
✏Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
✏Release Date : 1997
✏Pages : 725
✏ISBN : 3110132427
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Radiochemistry of Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors Book Summary : In diesem ausfuhrlichen Handbuch werden die Radioaktivitat sowie die chemischen Reaktionen der Radionuklide innerhalb der verschiedenen Teile eines Kernkraftwerkes behandelt. DAs Buch konzentriert sich insbesondere auf wirtschaftlich genutzte Leichtwasserreaktoranlagen, da diese die bedeutendste Rolle in der weltweiten Produktion der Kernkraft haben.

Nuclear Corrosion Science And Engineering Book PDF
✏Book Title : Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering
✏Author : Damien FERON
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2012-02-21
✏Pages : 1072
✏ISBN : 9780857095343
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering Book Summary : Corrosion of nuclear materials, i.e. the interaction between these materials and their environments, is a major issue for plant safety as well as for operation and economic competitiveness. Understanding these corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods to accurately measure their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry. Combining assessment techniques and analytical models into this understanding allows operators to predict the service life of corrosion-affected nuclear plant materials, and to apply the most appropriate maintenance and mitigation options to ensure safe long term operation. This book critically reviews the fundamental corrosion mechanisms that affect nuclear power plants and facilities. Initial sections introduce the complex field of nuclear corrosion science, with detailed chapters on the different types of both aqueous and non aqueous corrosion mechanisms and the nuclear materials susceptible to attack from them. This is complemented by reviews of monitoring and control methodologies, as well as modelling and lifetime prediction approaches. Given that corrosion is an applied science, the final sections review corrosion issues across the range of current and next-generation nuclear reactors, and across such nuclear applications as fuel reprocessing facilities, radioactive waste storage and geological disposal systems. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Nuclear corrosion science and engineering is an invaluable reference for nuclear metallurgists, materials scientists and engineers, as well as nuclear facility operators, regulators and consultants, and researchers and academics in this field. Comprehensively reviews the fundamental corrosion mechanisms that affect nuclear power plants and facilities Chapters assess different types of both aqueous and non aqueous corrosion mechanisms and the nuclear materials susceptible to attack from them Considers monitoring and control methodologies, as well as modelling and lifetime prediction approaches

Chemical And Electrochemical Energy Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Chemical And Electrochemical Energy Systems
✏Author : R. Narayan
✏Publisher : Universities Press
✏Release Date : 1998
✏Pages : 272
✏ISBN : 8173710694
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Chemical And Electrochemical Energy Systems Book Summary : This book addresses the problem of production of energy through chemical energy conversion. It deals with the importance of the need to explore new sources of energy and methods of storage. It includes all forms of chemical energy conversion and deals clearly with the production of energy from petroleum fuel and carbon.

Electrochemistry In Mineral And Metal Processing Vi Book PDF
✏Book Title : Electrochemistry in Mineral and Metal Processing VI
✏Author : Fiona M. Doyle
✏Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
✏Release Date : 2003
✏Pages : 414
✏ISBN : 1566774012
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Electrochemistry in Mineral and Metal Processing VI Book Summary : "Sponsoring divisions: Industrial Electrolysis and Electrochemical Engineering, Energy Technology."

Zirconium In The Nuclear Industry Book PDF
✏Book Title : Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry
✏Author : E. Ross Bradley
✏Publisher : ASTM International
✏Release Date : 1996
✏Pages : 908
✏ISBN : 0803124066
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry Book Summary :

Water Chemistry Of Nuclear Reactor Systems 7 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Water Chemistry of Nuclear Reactor Systems 7
✏Author :
✏Publisher : Thomas Telford
✏Release Date : 1996
✏Pages : 440
✏ISBN : 0727725653
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Water Chemistry of Nuclear Reactor Systems 7 Book Summary : These proceedings of the seventh conference address the chemical factors important to the operation of water power reactors with minimum corrosion, operator radiation dose and effluent discharges.

📒Corrosion Science ✍ Robert Peter Frankenthal

Corrosion Science Book PDF
✏Book Title : Corrosion Science
✏Author : Robert Peter Frankenthal
✏Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
✏Release Date : 2002
✏Pages : 604
✏ISBN : 1566773350
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Corrosion Science Book Summary :

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials Book PDF
✏Book Title : Comprehensive Nuclear Materials
✏Author : Todd R Allen
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2011-05-12
✏Pages : 3560
✏ISBN : 9780080560335
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Comprehensive Nuclear Materials Book Summary : Comprehensive Nuclear Materials discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials. The work addresses the full panorama of contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. Critically reviews the major classes and functions of materials, supporting the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environment Fully integrated with F-elements.net, a proprietary database containing useful cross-referenced property data on the lanthanides and actinides Details contemporary developments in numerical simulation, modelling, experimentation, and computational analysis, for effective implementation in labs and plants

📒Nuclear Wastes ✍ National Research Council

Nuclear Wastes Book PDF
✏Book Title : Nuclear Wastes
✏Author : National Research Council
✏Publisher : National Academies Press
✏Release Date : 1996-02-23
✏Pages : 592
✏ISBN : 9780309176484
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Nuclear Wastes Book Summary : Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear weapons production and power generation has caused public outcry and political consternation. Nuclear Wastes presents a critical review of some waste management and disposal alternatives to the current national policy of direct disposal of light water reactor spent fuel. The book offers clearcut conclusions for what the nation should do today and what solutions should be explored for tomorrow. The committee examines the currently used "once-through" fuel cycle versus different alternatives of separations and transmutation technology systems, by which hazardous radionuclides are converted to nuclides that are either stable or radioactive with short half-lives. The volume provides detailed findings and conclusions about the status and feasibility of plutonium extraction and more advanced separations technologies, as well as three principal transmutation concepts for commercial reactor spent fuel. The book discusses nuclear proliferation; the U.S. nuclear regulatory structure; issues of health, safety and transportation; the proposed sale of electrical energy as a means of paying for the transmutation system; and other key issues.

Corrosion Mechanisms In Theory And Practice Book PDF
✏Book Title : Corrosion Mechanisms in Theory and Practice
✏Author : Philippe Marcus
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2002-07-24
✏Pages : 768
✏ISBN : 0203909186
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Corrosion Mechanisms in Theory and Practice Book Summary : Called "a useful contribution to the current litereture on corrosion science, engineering, and technology" by Corrosion Review, this book offers real-world applications and problem-solving techniques to reduce the occurrence of pits, cracks, and deterioration in industrial, automotive, marine, and electronic structures. It details the electrochemic

📒Materials Science And Technology Division Light Water Reactor Safety Research Program ✍ Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science and Technology Division

Materials Science And Technology Division Light Water Reactor Safety Research Program Book PDF
✏Book Title : Materials Science and Technology Division Light water reactor Safety Research Program
✏Author : Argonne National Laboratory. Materials Science and Technology Division
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1984
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015095239169
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Materials Science and Technology Division Light water reactor Safety Research Program Book Summary :

📒Corrosion Fatigue ✍ T. W. Crooker

Corrosion Fatigue Book PDF
✏Book Title : Corrosion Fatigue
✏Author : T. W. Crooker
✏Publisher : ASTM International
✏Release Date : 1983
✏Pages : 531
✏ISBN : 0803102453
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Corrosion Fatigue Book Summary :

New Promising Electrochemical Systems For Rechargeable Batteries Book PDF
✏Book Title : New Promising Electrochemical Systems for Rechargeable Batteries
✏Author : V. Barsukov
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 1996-02-29
✏Pages : 528
✏ISBN : 0792339487
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏New Promising Electrochemical Systems for Rechargeable Batteries Book Summary : Electricity is the most important secondary energy source, the present production rate, mainly from thermal electric power stations, being of the order of 1.3 TW. However, the total capacity of primary and rechargeable batteries currently in use is the same as the output of the world's power stations. But present battery systems will not meet future needs for the economical storage of large amounts of electrical energy for vehicles, public transport, road levelling, solar energy utilisation, civil video and audio, terrestrial and space communications, etc. Current accumulators based on aqueous acid or alkali systems do not have sufficient output and, moreover, the materials employed (Pb, Cd, Ni) are environmental pollutants that require safe recycling. Further, stocks of these strategic metals are being rapidly depleted. This book discusses actual field results with novel systems, such as rechargeable lithium batteries, zinc/air cells, metal-free accumulators, graphite/carbon devices and others, including fuel cells. The book stresses that a universal electrochemical system is not feasible: the choice of any system must depend on the concrete field of application and must be taken in consideration of a large number of technical, economic and environmental circumstances.

Proceedings Of The 18th International Conference On Environmental Degradation Of Materials In Nuclear Power Systems Water Reactors Book PDF
✏Book Title : Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems Water Reactors
✏Author : John H. Jackson
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2018-12-20
✏Pages : 2532
✏ISBN : 9783030046392
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems Water Reactors Book Summary : This two-volume set represents a collection of papers presented at the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems – Water Reactors. The purpose of this conference series is to foster an exchange of ideas about problems and their remedies in water-cooled nuclear power plants of today and the future. Contributions cover problems facing nickel-based alloys, stainless steels, pressure vessel and piping steels, zirconium alloys, and other alloys in water environments of relevance. Components covered include pressure boundary components, reactor vessels and internals, steam generators, fuel cladding, irradiated components, fuel storage containers, and balance of plant components and systems.

Assessment Of The Electrochemical Reduction Of The Perchlorate Ion Book PDF
✏Book Title : Assessment of the Electrochemical Reduction of the Perchlorate Ion
✏Author : Thomas L. Theis
✏Publisher : American Water Works Association
✏Release Date : 2001
✏Pages : 30
✏ISBN : 9781583211762
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Assessment of the Electrochemical Reduction of the Perchlorate Ion Book Summary :

Trends In Electrochemistry Research Book PDF
✏Book Title : Trends in Electrochemistry Research
✏Author : Magdalena Nuñez
✏Publisher : Nova Publishers
✏Release Date : 2007
✏Pages : 297
✏ISBN : 1594544573
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Trends in Electrochemistry Research Book Summary : Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the chemical action of electricity and the production of electricity by chemical reactions. In a world short of energy sources yet long on energy use, electrochemistry is a critical component of the mix necessary to keep the world economies growing. Electrochemistry is involved with such important applications as batteries, fuel cells, corrosion studies, hydrogen energy conversion, bioelectricity. Research on electrolytes, cells, and electrodes is within the scope of this old but extremely dynamic field. This new book gathers new and important research from around the globe.

Corrosion In Marine And Saltwater Environments Ii Book PDF
✏Book Title : Corrosion in Marine and Saltwater Environments II
✏Author : D. A. Shifler
✏Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
✏Release Date : 2005
✏Pages : 516
✏ISBN : 1566774578
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Corrosion in Marine and Saltwater Environments II Book Summary :

📒Organic Electrochemistry ✍ Mark Steven Workentin

Organic Electrochemistry Book PDF
✏Book Title : Organic Electrochemistry
✏Author : Mark Steven Workentin
✏Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
✏Release Date : 2002
✏Pages : 162
✏ISBN : 1566773318
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Organic Electrochemistry Book Summary :

Modern Aspects Of Electrochemistry 40 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry 40
✏Author : Ralph E. White
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2010-04-28
✏Pages : 352
✏ISBN : 038746106X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry 40 Book Summary : This volume in the acclaimed series Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry starts with a dedication to the late Professor Brian Conway who for 50 years helped to guide this series to its current prominence. The remainder of the volume is then devoted to the following topics: PEM fuel cells; the use of graphs in electrochemical reaction newtworks; nanomaterials in Lithium-ion batteries; direct methanolf fuel cells (two chapters); fuel cell catalyst layers. The book is for electrochemists, electrochemical engineers, fuel cell workers and energy generation workers.

Investigations On The Selective Corrosion Behavior Of Materials Used In Light Water Reactors Book PDF
✏Book Title : Investigations on the Selective Corrosion Behavior of Materials Used in Light Water Reactors
✏Author : H. Hickling
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1978
✏Pages : 175
✏ISBN : UOM:39015041107338
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Investigations on the Selective Corrosion Behavior of Materials Used in Light Water Reactors Book Summary :

Energy Research Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Research Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1982
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015026171820
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Research Abstracts Book Summary :

Advances In Oxygen Research And Application 2012 Edition Book PDF
✏Book Title : Advances in Oxygen Research and Application 2012 Edition
✏Author :
✏Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
✏Release Date : 2012-12-26
✏Pages : 536
✏ISBN : 9781464992476
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Advances in Oxygen Research and Application 2012 Edition Book Summary : Advances in Oxygen Research and Application / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Oxygen in a concise format. The editors have built Advances in Oxygen Research and Application / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Oxygen in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Oxygen Research and Application / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Environmentally Assisted Cracking In Light Water Reactors Book PDF
✏Book Title : Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1991
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015041119358
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors Book Summary :

Critical Factors In Localized Corrosion Iv Book PDF
✏Book Title : Critical Factors in Localized Corrosion IV
✏Author : Sannakaisa Virtanen
✏Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
✏Release Date : 2003
✏Pages : 698
✏ISBN : 1566773865
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Critical Factors in Localized Corrosion IV Book Summary :

📒Tms 2018 147th Annual Meeting Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings ✍ The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

Tms 2018 147th Annual Meeting Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings Book PDF
✏Book Title : TMS 2018 147th Annual Meeting Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings
✏Author : The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2018-02-03
✏Pages : 961
✏ISBN : 9783319725260
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏TMS 2018 147th Annual Meeting Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings Book Summary : This collection features papers presented at the 147th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

Prioritized List Of Research Needs To Support Mrwfd Case Study Flowsheet Advancement Book PDF
✏Book Title : Prioritized List of Research Needs to Support MRWFD Case Study Flowsheet Advancement
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2015
✏Pages : 26
✏ISBN : OCLC:1066518699
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Prioritized List of Research Needs to Support MRWFD Case Study Flowsheet Advancement Book Summary : In FY-13, a case study evaluation was performed of full recycle technologies for both the processing of light-water reactor (LWR) used nuclear fuels as well as fast reactor (FR) fuel in the full recycle option. This effort focused on the identification of the case study processes and the initial preparation of material balance flowsheets for the identified technologies. In identifying the case study flowsheets, it was decided that two cases would be developed: one which identifies the flowsheet as currently developed and another near-term target flowsheet which identifies the flowsheet as envisioned within two years, pending the results of ongoing research. The case study focus is on homogeneous aqueous recycle of the U/TRU resulting from the processing of LWR fuel as feed for metal fuel fabrication. The metal fuel is utilized in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and the used fast reactor fuel is processed using electrochemical separations. The recovered U/TRU from electrochemical separations is recycled to fuel fabrication and the fast reactor. Waste streams from the aqueous and electrochemical processing are treated and prepared for disposition. Off-gas from the separations and waste processing are also treated. As part of the FY-13 effort, preliminary process unknowns and research needs to advance the near-term target flowsheets were identified. In FY-14, these research needs were updated, expanded and prioritized. This report again updates the prioritized list of research needs based upon results to date in FY-15. The research needs are listed for each of the main portions of the flowsheet: 1) Aqueous headend, 2) Headend tritium pretreatment off-gas, 3) Aqueous U/Pu/Np recovery, 4) Aqueous TRU product solidification, 5) Aqueous actinide/lanthanide separation, 6) Aqueous off-gas treatment, 7) Aqueous HLW management, 8) Treatment of aqueous process wastes, 9) E-chem actinide separations, 10) E-chem off-gas, 11) E-chem HLW management. The identified research needs were prioritized within each of these areas. No effort was made to perform an overall prioritization. This information will be used by the MRWFD Campaign leadership in research planning for FY-16. Additionally, this information will be incorporated into the next version of the Case Study Report scheduled to be issued September 2015.

Progress Challenges And Opportunities For Converting U S And Russian Research Reactors Book PDF
✏Book Title : Progress Challenges and Opportunities for Converting U S and Russian Research Reactors
✏Author : Russian Academy of Sciences
✏Publisher : National Academies Press
✏Release Date : 2012-03-24
✏Pages : 126
✏ISBN : 9780309253208
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Progress Challenges and Opportunities for Converting U S and Russian Research Reactors Book Summary : Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used for two major civilian purposes: as fuel for research reactors and as targets for medical isotope production. This material can be dangerous in the wrong hands. Stolen or diverted HEU can be used-in conjunction with some knowledge of physics-to build nuclear explosive devices. Thus, the continued civilian use of HEU is of concern particularly because this material may not be uniformly well-protected. To address these concerns, the National Research Council (NRC) of the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) held a joint symposium on June 8-10, 2011. Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities for Converting U.S. and Russian Research Reactors summarizes the proceedings of this joint symposium. This report addresses: (1) recent progress on conversion of research reactors, with a focus on U.S.- and R.F.-origin reactors; (2) lessons learned for overcoming conversion challenges, increasing the effectiveness of research reactor use, and enabling new reactor missions; (3) future research reactor conversion plans, challenges, and opportunities; and (4) actions that could be taken by U.S. and Russian organizations to promote conversion. The agenda for the symposium is provided in Appendix A, biographical sketches of the committee members are provided in Appendix B, and the report concludes with the statement of task in Appendix C.

Energy Resources And Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Resources and Systems
✏Author : Tushar Ghosh
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2009-06-17
✏Pages : 778
✏ISBN : 9789048123827
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Resources and Systems Book Summary : In the lifetimes of the authors, the world and especially the United States have received three significant “wake-up calls” on energy production and consumption. The first of these occurred on October 15, 1973 when the Yom Kippur War began with an attack by Syria and Egypt on Israel. The United States and many western countries supported Israel. Because of the western support of Israel, several Arab oil exporting nations imposed an oil embargo on the west. These nations withheld five million barrels of oil per day. Other countries made up about one million barrels of oil per day but the net loss of four million barrels of oil production per day extended through March of 1974. This represented 7% of the free world’s (i. e. , excluding the USSR) oil production. In 1972 the price of crude oil was about $3. 00 per barrel and by the end of 1974 the price of oil had risen by a factor of 4 to over $12. 00. This resulted in one of the worst recessions in the post World War II era. As a result, there was a movement in the United States to become energy independent. At that time the United States imported about one third of its oil (about five million barrels per day). After the embargo was lifted, the world chose to ignore the “wake-up call” and went on with business as usual.