Electoral Rules And Democracy In Latin America
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📒Electoral Rules And Democracy In Latin America ✍ Cynthia McClintock
✏Electoral Rules and Democracy in Latin America Book Summary : During Latin America's third democratic wave, a majority of countries adopted a runoff rule for the election of the president, effectively dampening plurality voting, opening the political arena to new parties, and assuring the public that the president will never have anything less than majority support. In a region in which undemocratic political parties were common and have often been dominated by caudillos, cautious naysayers have voiced concerns about the runoff process, arguing that a proliferation of new political parties vying for power is a sign of inferior democracy. This book is the first rigorous assessment of the implications of runoff versus plurality rules throughout Latin America, and demonstrates that, in contrast to early scholarly skepticism about runoff, it has been positive for democracy in the region. Primarily through qualitative analysis for each country, the author argues that, indeed, an important advantage of runoff is the greater openness of the political arena to new parties--at the same time that measures can be taken to inhibit party proliferation. In this context, it is also the first volume to address whether or not a runoff rule with a reduced threshold (for example, 40% with a 10-point lead) is a felicitous compromise between majority runoff and plurality. The book considers the potential for the superiority of runoff to travel beyond Latin America--in particular, and rather provocatively, to the United States.
✏Building Democratic Institutions Book Summary : "Third, the authors investigate the relationship between major parties and the state, revealing the extent to which parties are dependent on state resources to maintain power and win votes. Fourth, the contributions assess the importance of different electoral regimes for shaping broader patterns of party competition. Finally, and most important, the authors characterize the nature of the party system in each country - how institutionalized it is and how it can be classified."--BOOK JACKET.
📒Federalism And Democracy In Latin America ✍ Edward L. Gibson
✏Federalism and Democracy in Latin America Book Summary : We live in an increasingly federalized world. This fact has generated interest in how federal institutions shape politics, policy-making and the quality of life of those living in federal systems. In this book, Edward L. Gibson brings together a group of scholars to examine the Latin American experience with federalism and to advance our theoretical understanding of politics in federal systems. questions of how and when federal institutions matter for politics, policy-making and democratic practice. They also offer conceptual approaches for studying federal systems, their origins and their internal dynamics. The book provides case studies on the four existing federal systems in Latin America - Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela - and their experiences in dealing with a variety of issues, including federal system formation, democratization, electoral representation and economic reform.
📒Party Vibrancy And Democracy In Latin America ✍ Fernando Rosenblatt
✏Party Vibrancy and Democracy in Latin America Book Summary : Even in Latin America's most socially and economically stable countries, new parties emerge constantly, old parties collapse, and party systems across the region are notoriously fragile. Still, there are also successful stories. There have been a number of parties in Colombia, Chile, and Venezuela that used to be able to operate well beyond electoral cycles and preserve a significant presence in their respective countries for decades. How do such political parties remain vibrant organizations over time? In Party Vibrancy and Democracy in Latin America, Fernando Rosenblatt sheds new light on how party vibrancy is maintained and reproduced over time in three of the region's more stable countries-Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay. Referencing these three "consolidated" democracies with records of good governance, Rosenblatt identifies the complex interaction between four causal factors that can explain party vibrancy: Purpose, Trauma, Channels of Ambition, and Moderate Exit Barriers. "Purpose" activates prospective loyalty among party members. "Trauma" refers to a shared traumatic past which engenders retrospective loyalty. "Channels of Ambition" are established routes by which individuals can pursue political careers. Finally, "Moderate Exit Barriers" are rules that set costs of defection at reasonable levels. When these factors work together throughout a party's "Golden Age," they can demonstrate a link between party organizations ́ stability and the quality of democratic representation across Latin America. As Rosenblatt finds, when parties remain vibrant organizations, democracies are better able to withstand challenges long-term. A unique qualitative study, Party Vibrancy and Democracy in Latin America demonstrates how the vitality of political parties can directly and indirectly impact how effective they are as intermediaries for their citizens not just in Latin America, but around the world.
📒Presidentialism And Democracy In Latin America ✍ Conley Professor of Political Science Scott Mainwaring
✏Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America Book Summary : David J. Samuels and Matthew S. Shugart provide the first systematic analysis of how democratic constitutional design shapes party politics.
📒Latin American Democracy ✍ Richard L. Millett
✏Latin American Democracy Book Summary : More than thirty years have passed since Latin America began the arduous task of transitioning from military-led rule to democracy. In this time, more countries have moved toward the institutional bases of democracy than at any time in the region’s history. Nearly all countries have held free, competitive elections and most have had peaceful alternations in power between opposing political forces. Despite these advances, however, Latin American countries continue to face serious domestic and international challenges to the consolidation of stable democratic governance. The challenges range from weak political institutions, corruption, legacies of militarism, transnational crime, and globalization among others. In the second edition of Latin American Democracy contributors – both academics and practitioners, North Americans, Latin Americans, and Spaniards—explore and assess the state of democratic consolidation in Latin America by focusing on the specific issues and challenges confronting democratic governance in the region. This thoroughly updated revision provides new chapters on: the environment, decentralization, the economy, indigenous groups, and the role of China in the region.
📒Women Politics And Democracy In Latin America ✍ Tomáš Došek
✏Women Politics and Democracy in Latin America Book Summary : This book discusses the current tendencies in women’s representation and their role in politics in Latin American countries from three different perspectives. Firstly, the authors examine cultural, political-partisan and organizational obstacles that women face in and outside institutions. Secondly, the book explores barriers in political reality, such as gender legislation implementation, public administration and international cooperation, and proposes solutions, supported by successful experiences, emphasising the nonlinearity of the implementation process. Thirdly, the authors highlight the role of women in politics at the subnational level. The book combines academic expertise in various disciplines with contributions from practitioners within national and international institutions to broaden the reader’s understanding of women in Latin American politics.
📒The Deadlock Of Democracy In Brazil ✍ Barry Ames
✏The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil Book Summary : Many countries have experimented with different electoral rules in order either to increase involvement in the political system or make it easier to form stable governments. Barry Ames explores this important topic in one of the world's most populous and important democracies, Brazil. This book locates one of the sources of Brazil's "crisis of governance" in the nation's unique electoral system, a system that produces a multiplicity of weak parties and individualistic, pork-oriented politicians with little accountability to citizens. It explains the government's difficulties in adopting innovative policies by examining electoral rules, cabinet formation, executive-legislative conflict, party discipline and legislative negotiation. The book combines extensive use of new sources of data, ranging from historical and demographic analysis in focused comparisons of individual states to unique sources of data for the exploration of legislative politics. The discussion of party discipline in the Chamber of Deputies is the first multivariate model of party cooperation or defection in Latin America that includes measures of such important phenomena as constituency effects, pork-barrel receipts, ideology, electoral insecurity, and intention to seek reelection. With a unique data set and a sophisticated application of rational choice theory, Barry Ames demonstrates the effect of different electoral rules for election to Brazil's legislature. The readership of this book includes anyone wanting to understand the crisis of democratic politics in Brazil. The book will be especially useful to scholars and students in the areas of comparative politics, Latin American politics, electoral analysis, and legislative studies. Barry Ames is the Andrew Mellon Professor of Comparative Politics and Chair, Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh.
📒Democratic Latin America ✍ Craig Arceneaux
✏Democratic Latin America Book Summary : Drawing on new approaches in comparative politics, Democratic Latin America focuses on analyzing political institutions as a way to assess broader trends in the region’s politics, including the rise of democracy. The text looks at the major institutions–executive, legislature, judiciary, military, and more—in 18 democratic countries to not only provide an expansive view of politics in Latin America but to also facilitate cross-national comparison. Democratic Latin America uniquely surveys the "what” of the region’s politics as well as the “why” and “how” to help students critically consider Latin America’s future.
📒Paying For Democracy ✍ Kevin Casas-Zamora
✏Paying for Democracy Book Summary : This text covers political finance systems and direct state funding in Costa Rica and Uraguay as well as state funding and campaign finance practices in those countries.