Durability And Reliability Of Polymers And Other Materials In Photovoltaic Modules

Durability And Reliability Of Polymers And Other Materials In Photovoltaic Modules Book PDF
✏Book Title : Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules
✏Author : Hsinjin Edwin Yang
✏Publisher : William Andrew
✏Release Date : 2019-04-15
✏Pages : 250
✏ISBN : 9780128115459
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules Book Summary : Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Stability And Degradation Of Organic And Polymer Solar Cells Book PDF
✏Book Title : Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells
✏Author : Frederik C. Krebs
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2012-04-23
✏Pages : 360
✏ISBN : 9781119952510
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells Book Summary : Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

Durability Testing Of Nonmetallic Materials Book PDF
✏Book Title : Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials
✏Author : Robert J. Herling
✏Publisher : ASTM International
✏Release Date : 1996
✏Pages : 234
✏ISBN : 0803124074
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials Book Summary :

Reliability And Ecological Aspects Of Photovoltaic Modules Book PDF
✏Book Title : Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules
✏Author : Abdulkerim Gok
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2020-01-08
✏Pages : 170
✏ISBN : 9781789848229
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules Book Summary : Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is expected to be the world's largest source of electricity in the future. To enhance the long-term reliability of PV modules, a thorough understanding of failure mechanisms is of vital importance. In addition, it is important to address the potential downsides to this technology. These include the hazardous chemicals needed for manufacturing solar cells, especially for thin-film technologies, and the large number of PV modules disposed of at the end of their lifecycles. This book discusses the reliability and environmental aspects of PV modules.

Research Opportunities In Reliability Of Photovoltaic Modules Book PDF
✏Book Title : Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules
✏Author : Peter Hacke
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2010
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:727264785
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Book Summary : The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

12th Nrel Photovoltaic Program Review Book PDF
✏Book Title : 12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review
✏Author : R. Noufi
✏Publisher : American Institute of Physics
✏Release Date : 2000-04-14
✏Pages : 624
✏ISBN : 1563963159
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review Book Summary : Annotation The Photovoltaics (PV) Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is part of The US Dept. of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program. These proceedings of the 12th NREL PV Program Review Meeting, comprise presentations by invited speakers from private industry, universities, federal laboratories, and representatives of other countries, on such topics as material growth and characterization; single and multijunction devices; cell processing; PV manufacturing; module reliability and field testing; system engineering and applications; and markets and user perspectives. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

Ashrae Handbook Book PDF
✏Book Title : ASHRAE Handbook
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1996
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UVA:X004134846
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏ASHRAE Handbook Book Summary :

Polymeric Materials For Solar Thermal Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications
✏Author : Michael Köhl
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2012-08-14
✏Pages : 418
✏ISBN : 9783527659623
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications Book Summary : Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications. Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, discussing the potential of polymeric materials in solar thermal applications, as well as demands on durability, design and building integration. With its emphasis on applications, this monograph is relevant for researchers at universities and developers in commercial companies.

New Electric Power Technologies Book PDF
✏Book Title : New Electric Power Technologies
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1985
✏Pages : 329
✏ISBN : UCAL:B4591827
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏New Electric Power Technologies Book Summary :

📒Ncpv Photovoltaics Program Review ✍ National Center for Photovoltaics (U.S.)

Ncpv Photovoltaics Program Review Book PDF
✏Book Title : NCPV Photovoltaics Program Review
✏Author : National Center for Photovoltaics (U.S.)
✏Publisher : American Institute of Physics
✏Release Date : 1999-03-12
✏Pages : 833
✏ISBN : UOM:39015041887129
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏NCPV Photovoltaics Program Review Book Summary : This proceedings volume compiles 123 papers that were presented orally or as posters at the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) Program Review Meeting, held in Denver, Colorado, on September 8-11, 1998. The purpose of this meeting was to highlight the advances made in various areas of photovoltaics by and through the NCPV during the period of December 1997 to September 1998. Topics covered ranged from research in crystalline silicon and thin-film technologies, to manufacturing of photovoltaic modules, to applications of and markets for photovoltaic products.

📒12th Nrel Photovoltaic Program Review ✍ National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Photovoltaic Program. Review Meeting

12th Nrel Photovoltaic Program Review Book PDF
✏Book Title : 12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review
✏Author : National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Photovoltaic Program. Review Meeting
✏Publisher : American Institute of Physics
✏Release Date : 1994
✏Pages : 600
✏ISBN : UOM:39015032281472
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review Book Summary : Annotation The Photovoltaics (PV) Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is part of The US Dept. of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program. These proceedings of the 12th NREL PV Program Review Meeting, comprise presentations by invited speakers from private industry, universities, federal laboratories, and representatives of other countries, on such topics as material growth and characterization; single and multijunction devices; cell processing; PV manufacturing; module reliability and field testing; system engineering and applications; and markets and user perspectives. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

Corrosion Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Corrosion Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1987
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105016788247
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Corrosion Abstracts Book Summary :

Renewable And Sustainable Energy Ii Book PDF
✏Book Title : Renewable and Sustainable Energy II
✏Author : Nan Qi Ren
✏Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
✏Release Date : 2012-05-14
✏Pages : 3255
✏ISBN : 9783038138297
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Renewable and Sustainable Energy II Book Summary : This special collection contains selected papers from the International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection (ICEEP 2012), held on the 23rd and 24th June, 2012, in Hohhot, China. The 590 peer-reviewed papers cover a wide area and are divided into: Chapter 1: Development and Utilization of Solar Energy; Chapter 2: Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy; Chapter 3: Development and Utilization of Wind Energy; Chapter 4: Nuclear Energy and other Energy Sources; Chapter 5: Energy Storage Technologies and Storage Batteries; Chapter 6: Energy-Saving Technology; Chapter 7: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells; Chapter 8: Energy Materials, Engineering Materials and Processing Technologies; Chapter 9: Energy Chemical Engineering; Chapter 10: Energy Security and Clean Use; Chapter 11: New Energy, New Energy Vehicles, Electric Vehicles; Chapter 12: Energy-Efficient Lighting Products and Technologies; Chapter 13: Green Building Materials and Energy-Saving Buildings

Energy Research Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Research Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1994
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : MSU:31293011519117
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Research Abstracts Book Summary : Includes all works deriving from DOE, other related government-sponsored information and foreign nonnuclear information.

Bridging The Gap Between Accelerated And Field Aging Of Photovoltaic Backsheets Book PDF
✏Book Title : Bridging the Gap Between Accelerated and Field Aging of Photovoltaic Backsheets
✏Author : Yu Wang
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages : 212
✏ISBN : OCLC:1140510093
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Bridging the Gap Between Accelerated and Field Aging of Photovoltaic Backsheets Book Summary : The photovoltaic (PV) industry has grown tremendously for the past decades, benefiting from the continuous reduction of cost. PV modules are expected to work functionally for 25-30 years with a future goal of up to 50 years. Backsheets play an important role in maintaining the long-time reliability and durability of PV modules. There is a gap in application of indoor experimental results to the prediction of backsheet`s lifetime in the field. In order to reduce this gap, a comprehensive study of backsheets degradation was conducted to investigate the effects of outdoor degradation factors and the changes of backsheet materials. This work includes studies of backsheet degradation with three thrusts: field-exposed, field-retrieved, and indoor accelerated test exposed backsheets. Field surveys were conducted on 1310 field-exposed PV module backsheets at 4 PV sites, and a generalized spatio-temporal model was developed to fit each site. Spatially non-uniform backsheet degradation within a rack level in the field is observed, arising from inhomogeneous backside irradiance of PV modules. The non-uniform backsheet degradation is also affected by ground cover and the air-side material of backsheet. The generalized spatio-temporal models, with adjusted R-2 up to 0.89 capture this spatial and temporal variation in backsheet degradation in real-world PV power plant sites. This model can be used to identify the backsheets that will degrade faster in a specific PV site, due to the backsheet air-side polymer and the PV rack`s design, and enable replacement of those modules before potential safety concerns become extreme. A total of 33 PV module backsheets were retrieved from the field worldwide, and the degradation induced color change, gloss loss, and physical and chemical material changes analyzed. Principle components analysis (PCA) of field-retrieved backsheets indicates that the discoloration of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyamide (PA) air-side backsheets has a strong correlation with exposure time (accumulated irradiance) and with the concentration of the air pollutant NO2, respectively. The non-uniform degradation within an individual module is also studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the faster photo-degradation of backsheets between the PV cells is assumed to be associated with the severe cracking in PA/PA/PA backsheets. Four types of backsheets were exposed in the laboratory to 6 indoor accelerated tests, and the predictive Stressor|Response models were developed for the yellowness index (YI) and gloss. The high adjusted R-2 (up to 0.99) show that the models are able to capture the features of data. The degradation mechanisms for PET and PA are investigated with FTIR and ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The photo-oxidation of PET and PA involves chain scission, formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl species. The presence of water spray during accelerated exposures also induced the cracking of PA/PA/PA backsheets exposed outdoors by removing the air-side layer and causing degradation of the core layer. In addition the presence of water spray induces PVF degradation that is not observed in the field. The comparison between indoor predictive models and the degradation of field retrieved backsheets shows the similarity and dissimilarity of different indoor accelerated test conditions with degradation observed under real-world climatic zone exposure conditions. The xenon-light exposure with an irradiance level of 0.25 W/m2/nm at 340 nm, temperature of 80 centigrade and water spray induces similar discoloration and FTIR spectra for PET/PET/EVA backsheets with BSk climate zone. The xenon light exposure with irradiance level of 0.8 W/m2/nm at 340 nm, temperature of 65 centigrade or 80 centigrade and no water spray induces similar gloss retention for PA/PA/PA backsheets with Cfa climate zone.

📒Alternative Energy Sources Vii ✍ T. Nejat Veziroǧlu

Alternative Energy Sources Vii Book PDF
✏Book Title : Alternative Energy Sources VII
✏Author : T. Nejat Veziroǧlu
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1987
✏Pages : 598
✏ISBN : 0891166602
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Alternative Energy Sources VII Book Summary :

📒Progress In Solar Energy ✍ American Solar Energy Society. Meeting

Progress In Solar Energy Book PDF
✏Book Title : Progress in Solar Energy
✏Author : American Solar Energy Society. Meeting
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1982
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : CORNELL:31924067481329
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Progress in Solar Energy Book Summary :

📒Papers Presented At The Meeting ✍ American Chemical Society. Division of Polymer Chemistry

Papers Presented At The Meeting Book PDF
✏Book Title : Papers Presented at the Meeting
✏Author : American Chemical Society. Division of Polymer Chemistry
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1982
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822004723102
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Papers Presented at the Meeting Book Summary :

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Book PDF
✏Book Title : Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1982
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UCAL:B4342340
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Book Summary :

Physics Briefs Book PDF
✏Book Title : Physics Briefs
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1990
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015026184476
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Physics Briefs Book Summary :

Solar Today Book PDF
✏Book Title : Solar Today
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1994
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015030266590
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Solar Today Book Summary :

Sixteenth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 1982 Book PDF
✏Book Title : Sixteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 1982
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1982
✏Pages : 1484
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822010026011
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Sixteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 1982 Book Summary :

International Aerospace Abstracts Book PDF
✏Book Title : International Aerospace Abstracts
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1999
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105021812214
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏International Aerospace Abstracts Book Summary :

Synerjy Book PDF
✏Book Title : Synerjy
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1996
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105021414508
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Synerjy Book Summary :

The Spec Guide Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Spec Guide
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1985
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : UOM:39015009405575
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Spec Guide Book Summary :

Recent Grc Aerospace Technologies Applicable To Terrestrial Energy Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Recent GRC Aerospace Technologies Applicable to Terrestrial Energy Systems
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2000
✏Pages : 13
✏ISBN : NASA:31769000639446
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Recent GRC Aerospace Technologies Applicable to Terrestrial Energy Systems Book Summary :

Government Reports Annual Index Keyword M Z Book PDF
✏Book Title : Government Reports Annual Index Keyword M Z
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1993
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : MINN:30000003749359
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Government Reports Annual Index Keyword M Z Book Summary :

📒Conservation And Renewable Energy ✍ United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology

Conservation And Renewable Energy Book PDF
✏Book Title : Conservation and renewable energy
✏Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1982
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : LOC:00183582112
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Conservation and renewable energy Book Summary :

📒Energy Law And Policy ✍ Joseph P. Tomain

Energy Law And Policy Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Law and Policy
✏Author : Joseph P. Tomain
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1989
✏Pages : 572
✏ISBN : STANFORD:36105044142425
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Law and Policy Book Summary : This book focuses on the federal regulation of energy resources. Contained are background materials, ratemaking and cost-benefit analyses applied to specific natural resources.

📒Energy And Water Development Appropriations For Fiscal Year 1988 Dept Of Energy ✍ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development

Energy And Water Development Appropriations For Fiscal Year 1988 Dept Of Energy Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy and Water Development Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1988 Dept of Energy
✏Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1988
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : LOC:0017211846A
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy and Water Development Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1988 Dept of Energy Book Summary :