Black Athena The Archaeological And Documentary Evidence

✏Book Title : Black Athena The archaeological and documentary evidence
✏Author : Martin Bernal
✏Publisher : Rutgers University Press
✏Release Date : 1987
✏Pages : 736
✏ISBN : 081351584X
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena The archaeological and documentary evidence Book Summary : What is classical about Classical civilization? In one of the most audacious works of scholarship ever written, Martin Bernal challenges the whole basis of our thinking about this question. Classical civilization, he argues, has deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. But these Afroasiatic influences have been systematically ignored, denied or suppressed since the eighteenth century - chiefly for racist reasons. Volume II is concerned with the archaeological and documentary evidence for contacts between Egypt and the Levant on the one hand and the Aegean on the other, during the Bronze Age from c. 3400 B.C. to c. 1100 B.C.

📒Black Athena ✍ Martin Bernal

✏Book Title : Black Athena
✏Author : Martin Bernal
✏Publisher : Rutgers University Press
✏Release Date : 2006-11-03
✏Pages : 848
✏ISBN : 9780813564418
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena Book Summary : Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that much of Western civilization was formed on the “Dark Continent”? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today’s most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. To use his terms, the Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or “Aryans,” of the native “pre-Hellenes.” The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. This long-awaited third and final volume of the series is concerned with the linguistic evidence that contradicts the Aryan Model of ancient Greece. Bernal shows how nearly 40 percent of the Greek vocabulary has been plausibly derived from two Afroasiatic languages—Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. He also reveals how these derivations are not limited to matters of trade, but extended to the sophisticated language of politics, religion, and philosophy. This evidence, according to Bernal, greatly strengthens the hypothesis that in Greece an Indo-European–speaking population was culturally dominated by Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic speakers Provocative, passionate, and colossal in scope, this volume caps a thoughtful rewriting of history that has been stirring academic and political controversy since the publication of the first volume.

✏Book Title : Black Athena The archaeological and documentary evidence
✏Author : Martin Bernal
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1987
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : LCCN:87016408
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena The archaeological and documentary evidence Book Summary :

📒Black Athena Writes Back ✍ Martin Bernal

✏Book Title : Black Athena Writes Back
✏Author : Martin Bernal
✏Publisher : Duke University Press
✏Release Date : 2001-09-20
✏Pages : 550
✏ISBN : 0822327171
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena Writes Back Book Summary : Responds to the debates set off by the author's 1987 publication of "Black Athena," arguing that Greek civilization was heavily influence by Afroasiatic cultures, and provides additional information to support the thesis while lashing out against the inherent racism of traditional scholarship.

✏Book Title : Was Civilization Made in Africa Review Of Bernal Martin Black Athena the Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization Volume Two The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence New Brunswick Rutgers University Press and Diop Chiekh Anta Civilization Or Barbarism An Authentic Anthropology Brooklyn Lawrence Hill Books
✏Author : John Baines
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1991
✏Pages : 12
✏ISBN : OCLC:84137434
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Was Civilization Made in Africa Review Of Bernal Martin Black Athena the Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization Volume Two The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence New Brunswick Rutgers University Press and Diop Chiekh Anta Civilization Or Barbarism An Authentic Anthropology Brooklyn Lawrence Hill Books Book Summary :

✏Book Title : Black Athena Comes of Age
✏Author :
✏Publisher : LIT Verlag Münster
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN :
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena Comes of Age Book Summary :

📒Black Athena Revisited ✍ Mary R. Lefkowitz

✏Book Title : Black Athena Revisited
✏Author : Mary R. Lefkowitz
✏Publisher : UNC Press Books
✏Release Date : 2014-03-24
✏Pages : 544
✏ISBN : 9781469620329
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena Revisited Book Summary : Was Western civilization founded by ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians? Can the ancient Egyptians usefully be called black? Did the ancient Greeks borrow religion, science, and philosophy from the Egyptians and Phoenicians? Have scholars ignored the Afroasiatic roots of Western civilization as a result of racism and anti-Semitism? In this collection of twenty essays, leading scholars in a broad range of disciplines confront the claims made by Martin Bernal in Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. In that work, Bernal proposed a radical reinterpretation of the roots of classical civilization, contending that ancient Greek culture derived from Egypt and Phoenicia and that European scholars have been biased against the notion of Egyptian and Phoenician influence on Western civilization. The contributors to this volume argue that Bernal's claims are exaggerated and in many cases unjustified. Topics covered include race and physical anthropology; the question of an Egyptian invasion of Greece; the origins of Greek language, philosophy, and science; and racism and anti-Semitism in classical scholarship. In the conclusion to the volume, the editors propose an entirely new scholarly framework for understanding the relationship between the cultures of the ancient Near East and Greece and the origins of Western civilization. The contributors are: John Baines, professor of Egyptology, University of Oxford Kathryn A. Bard, assistant professor of archaeology, Boston University C. Loring Brace, professor of anthropology and curator of biological anthropology in the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan John E. Coleman, professor of classics, Cornell University Edith Hall, lecturer in classics, University of Reading, England Jay H. Jasanoff, Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Linguistics, Cornell University Richard Jenkyns, fellow and tutor, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, and university lecturer in classics, University of Oxford Mary R. Lefkowitz, Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities, Wellesley College Mario Liverani, professor of ancient near eastern history, Universita di Roma, 'La Sapienza' Sarah P. Morris, professor of classics, University of California at Los Angeles Robert E. Norton, associate professor of German, Vassar College Alan Nussbaum, associate professor of classics, Cornell University David O'Connor, professor of Egyptology and curator in charge of the Egyptian section of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania Robert Palter, Dana Professor Emeritus of the History of Science, Trinity College, Connecticut Guy MacLean Rogers, associate professor of Greek and Latin and history, Wellesley College Frank M. Snowden, Jr., professor of classics emeritus, Howard University Lawrence A. Tritle, associate professor of history, Loyola Marymount University Emily T. Vermeule, Samuel E. Zemurray, Jr., and Doris Zemurray Stone-Radcliffe Professor Emerita, Harvard University Frank J. Yurco, Egyptologist, Field Museum of Natural History and the University of Chicago

✏Book Title : Black Athena The linguistic evidence
✏Author : Martin Bernal
✏Publisher : Rutgers University Press
✏Release Date : 1987
✏Pages : 807
✏ISBN : 9780813536552
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena The linguistic evidence Book Summary : Synopsis: Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that Western civilization was born on the so-called Dark Continent? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today's most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. The Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or "Aryans," of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures.

✏Book Title : Black Athena The fabrication of ancient Greece 1785 1985
✏Author : Martin Bernal
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1987
✏Pages : 575
✏ISBN : UOM:39015022293313
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena The fabrication of ancient Greece 1785 1985 Book Summary : Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that Western civilization was born on the so-called Dark Continent? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today's most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. The Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or "Aryans," of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. This long-awaited third and final volume of the series is concerned with the linguistic evidence that contradicts the Aryan Model of ancient Greece. Bernal shows how nearly 40 percent of the Greek vocabulary has been plausibly derived from two Afroasiatic languages-Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. He also reveals how these derivations are not limited to matters of trade, but extended to the sophisticated language of politics, religion, and philosophy. This evidence, according to Bernal, confirms the fact that in Greece an Indo-European people was culturally dominated by speakers of Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. Provocative, passionate, and colossal in scope, this volume caps a thoughtful rewriting of history that has been stirring academic and political controversy since the publication of the first volume.

✏Book Title : Black Athena The fabrication of ancient Greece 1785 1985
✏Author : Martin Bernal
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 1987
✏Pages : 575
✏ISBN : UCSD:31822028787331
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

✏Black Athena The fabrication of ancient Greece 1785 1985 Book Summary : Could Greek philosophy be rooted in Egyptian thought? Is it possible that the Pythagorean theory was conceived on the shores of the Nile and the Euphrates rather than in ancient Greece? Could it be that Western civilization was born on the so-called Dark Continent? For almost two centuries, Western scholars have given little credence to the possibility of such scenarios. In Black Athena, an audacious three-volume series that strikes at the heart of today's most heated culture wars, Martin Bernal challenges Eurocentric attitudes by calling into question two of the longest-established explanations for the origins of classical civilization. The Aryan Model, which is current today, claims that Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers, or "Aryans," of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that additional Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. Moving beyond these prevailing models, Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model, which suggests that classical civilization in fact had deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures. This long-awaited third and final volume of the series is concerned with the linguistic evidence that contradicts the Aryan Model of ancient Greece. Bernal shows how nearly 40 percent of the Greek vocabulary has been plausibly derived from two Afroasiatic languages-Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. He also reveals how these derivations are not limited to matters of trade, but extended to the sophisticated language of politics, religion, and philosophy. This evidence, according to Bernal, confirms the fact that in Greece an Indo-European people was culturally dominated by speakers of Ancient Egyptian and West Semitic. Provocative, passionate, and colossal in scope, this volume caps a thoughtful rewriting of history that has been stirring academic and political controversy since the publication of the first volume.