Biochar From Biomass And Waste

Biochar From Biomass And Waste Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biochar from Biomass and Waste
✏Author : Yong Sik Ok
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2018-11-02
✏Pages : 462
✏ISBN : 9780128117309
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biochar from Biomass and Waste Book Summary : Biochar from Biomass and Waste: Fundamentals and Applications provides the fundamentals of biochar, such as its basic concepts, production technology and characterization methods, also including comprehensive examples for readers. This book includes information on state-of-art biochar application technologies in the fields of agriculture, energy and environmental sciences with step-by-step case studies. Biochar has received worldwide interests in the past decade because it encompasses high priority research areas, including bioenergy production, global warming mitigation and sustainable agriculture. Offers comprehensive coverage of biochar production, characterization and modification methods Provides global case studies covering a wide range of application fields, including environmental, agricultural, syngas and bio-oil Covers the sustainability and future of biochar

Biochar Derived From Agricultural Waste Biomass Act As A Clean And Alternative Energy Source Of Fossil Fuel Inputs Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biochar Derived from Agricultural Waste Biomass Act as a Clean and Alternative Energy Source of Fossil Fuel Inputs
✏Author : Swapan Suman
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1154283535
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biochar Derived from Agricultural Waste Biomass Act as a Clean and Alternative Energy Source of Fossil Fuel Inputs Book Summary : In this study, pyrolysis was used to upgrade the agricultural biomass waste (ABW) and increase its energy at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 350 to 950°C and a residence time of 60 minutes. The produced biochars were characterized and their fuel qualities (such as, fixed carbon and carbon percentage, gross calorific value, pH and surface area) were evaluated. Physiochemical analysis showed that the biochar has improved fuel qualities compared to the raw biomass, such as decreased volatile matter, increased carbon content, pH and its gross calorific value with lower ash content. The evolution of derived biochar, as determined by TG-DTG and FT-IR, showed that most hemicellulose and cellulose were decomposed at below 350°C while the decomposition of lignin only occurs at higher pyrolysis temperatures. The biochars had increased ignition temperatures and higher combustion temperature regions compared to raw biomass feedstock. The present study showed that pyrolysis pointed the differences in fuel qualities among different agricultural biomass feedstocks. It also compromises with a promising conversion process for the production of biochar which has an alternative, clean and environment friendly energy source.

📒Biochar For Environmental Management ✍ Dr. Johannes Lehmann

Biochar For Environmental Management Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biochar for Environmental Management
✏Author : Dr. Johannes Lehmann
✏Publisher : Earthscan
✏Release Date : 2012-05-16
✏Pages : 449
✏ISBN : 9781849770552
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biochar for Environmental Management Book Summary : "Biochar is the carbon-rich product when biomass (such as wood, manure, or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its stability in soil and superior nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process.This book is the first to synthesize the expanding research literature on this topic. The book's interdisciplinary approach, which covers engineering, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, economics and policy, is a vital tool at this stage of biochar technology development. This comprehensive overview of current knowledge will be of interest to advanced students, researchers and professionals in a wide range of disciplines"--Provided by publisher.

Applications Of Biochar For Environmental Safety Book PDF
✏Book Title : Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety
✏Author : Ahmed Abdelhafez
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2020-07-22
✏Pages : 276
✏ISBN : 9781789858952
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety Book Summary : Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced from the pyrolysis of organic materials from agricultural and forestry biomass at a relatively low temperature in the absence of oxygen. As such, it has potential for solving many agricultural and environmental problems.This book is divided into five sections: “Introduction,” “Production and Legislation of Biochar,” “Applications of Biochar for Soil Fertility Improvement,” “Role of Biochar for Soil Remediation and Ameliorating Salinity Effects” and “Applications of Biochar for Water Treatment.” Chapters address topics such as the pros and cons of biochar, its production, and its role in remediating and treating contaminated soils and water.

Biochar Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biochar
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9781107117099
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biochar Book Summary :

Agrochemicals Detection Treatment And Remediation Book PDF
✏Book Title : Agrochemicals Detection Treatment and Remediation
✏Author : Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
✏Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
✏Release Date : 2020-02-18
✏Pages : 694
✏ISBN : 9780081030189
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Agrochemicals Detection Treatment and Remediation Book Summary : Agrochemicals Detection, Treatment and Remediation focuses on the latest research surrounding the detection and remediation of a new generation of agrochemical contaminants. The book defines the occurrence, sources, types and effects of agrochemicals, including herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and soil fumigants in the environment. The book covers both advanced physical and chemical methods for the abatement of these emerging contaminants in environmental media. Environmental Engineers and Researchers will find this to be a valuable reference on advanced processes for resource recovery, including nanotechnology for the recovery of phosphate from fertilizer industry wastewater. Provides the latest physical and chemical methods used for the abatement of chemical fertilizers and pesticides Covers genetically engineered microbes for the remediation of a wide range of agrochemicals Presents methods for determining the occurrence, sources, types and effects of agrochemical on environmental media Includes unique case studies from across the globe

Torrefaction Performance And Energy Usage Of Biomass Wastes And Their Correlations With Torrefaction Severity Index Book PDF
✏Book Title : Torrefaction Performance and Energy Usage of Biomass Wastes and Their Correlations with Torrefaction Severity Index
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051941361
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Torrefaction Performance and Energy Usage of Biomass Wastes and Their Correlations with Torrefaction Severity Index Book Summary : Graphical abstract: Highlights: Three biomass wastes are torrefied to produce biochars. Torrefaction severity index (TSI) in terms of biomass weight loss is introduced. Torrefaction performance can be correlated well by TSI. Upgrading energy index (UEI) is defined to account for the energy efficiency. Biochar quality is intensified at a higher TSI, but the energy efficiency is lowered. Abstract: Weight loss has been suggested as an important indicator of torrefaction severity for describing the performance of this thermal pretreatment process. The present study establishes a correlation of torrefaction performance, severity, and energy usage for the applications of this pretreatment for solid fuel (biochar) production. Three different biomass wastes, namely, spent coffee grounds, Chinese medicine residue, and microalga residue, have been torrefied in nitrogen at a temperature range of 200–300°C for 15–60min to produce biochars. Their properties such as the enhancement factor of higher heating value, energy yield, decarbonization, dehydrogenation, deoxygenation, and atomic O/C and H/C ratios have been investigated. The obtained results indicate that the introduced dimensionless parameter (the torrefaction severity index in terms of the weight loss of biomass) correlates sufficiently with the biochar properties; the exception is the O/C ratio as a consequence of the intrinsic difference in components between the utilized wastes. A new parameter (the upgrading energy index) was also defined to account for the energy efficiency of the torrefaction system. This index follows a decreasing trend with increasing torrefaction severity index. This shows that biochar quality or heating value is intensified at a higher torrefaction severity; however, the energy efficiency is lowered.

Biomass Valorization To Bioenergy Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biomass Valorization to Bioenergy
✏Author : R. Praveen Kumar
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date : 2019-10-11
✏Pages : 219
✏ISBN : 9789811504105
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biomass Valorization to Bioenergy Book Summary : This book covers topics related to bioenergy production from various biomass sources, including agricultural residues and waste biomass from both domestic and industrial use. It includes useful data, illustrations, and case studies of bioenergy production facilities. The contents of this book will be of interest to readers looking to scale up production and evaluate the selection and optimization of resources in order to overcome the current limitations of biomass to bioenergy conversions. The book will be of interest to researchers and industry professional alike.

Can Biochar Mitigate Nitrogen Losses In Organic Farming Systems  Book PDF
✏Book Title : Can Biochar Mitigate Nitrogen Losses in Organic Farming Systems
✏Author : Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2014
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 1321363656
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Can Biochar Mitigate Nitrogen Losses in Organic Farming Systems Book Summary : Nitrogen (N) management represents a challenge for organic farming systems. In particular, sufficient N mineralization is not always achieved, timing of N release and plant uptake is often not synchronized, and subsequent N transformations of mineralized N may be lost as environmental pollutants (e.g., leached N and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions). Biochar, the charcoal obtained from the thermal decomposition of biomass waste under limited oxygen supply, has the potential to alter soil physicochemical properties that regulate the retention of soil N. This dissertation evaluates biochar as a means to improve N management in organic farming systems by reducing environmental N losses and stabilizing N within the agricultural landscape. The following three experiments investigated these conditions using a multi-scale approach, including an on-farm trial and greenhouse experiments, high-frequency assessment of greenhouse gases (GHGs), 15N pool dilution techniques, and microbial analysis. The first experiment examined the effects of a variety of biochar amendments on plant performance, soil properties and N transformation rates in a mesocosm representing an organic lettuce production system (Lactuca sativa). N2O fluxes were monitored throughout the growing period as well as functional genes that encode nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, and nosZ) enzymes of bacteria. Findings from this study indicate that some biochars may accelerate N mineralization from organic fertilizer and increase net nitrification. Decreases in N2O fluxes were only observed for a short period, not leading to significant effects in total emissions. The second experiment examined whether biochar amendments reduce N losses from soils and improve plant performance and whether these effects are N level dependent. Fertilizer inputs, N output through harvest, leachate, and N2O emissions were used to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils. These evaluations were carried out for two growing seasons in a mesocosm representing an organic lettuce production system. Analyses of plant performance indicate that biochar amendments did not provide any increases in plant biomass in soils that received less than commercial fertilization rates (225 kg N ha−1). At commercial fertilization rates, biochar increased N use efficiency (NUE) and decreased N losses via leaching, which lead to a significant decrease in ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. N2O emissions were altered by biochar amendments only in soils that received 50% of commercial fertilization rates (112 kg N ha−1), which did not alter the ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. The third experiment provides an on-farm high frequency assessment of GHG emissions from biochar amended-soils in an organic walnut orchard, in addition to an estimate of the GHG savings from the conversion of orchard residue into utility grade energy. Despite observed short-term decreases, biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total CO2 and N2O emissions from soils; whereas, the conversion of orchard residue into energy and C sequestration through soil amendment lead to a carbon credit of 100.3 Mg CO2-Ceq per year.In conclusion, biochar did not decrease total N2O emissions from soils, but occasionally reduced N losses via leachate and improved plant utilization of N. A larger long-term environmental benefit of biochar was found to occur when using orchard residue for energy generation and C sequestration in soils.

Handbook On Characterization Of Biomass Biowaste And Related By Products Book PDF
✏Book Title : Handbook on Characterization of Biomass Biowaste and Related By products
✏Author : Ange Nzihou
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date : 2020-02-17
✏Pages : 1387
✏ISBN : 9783030350208
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Handbook on Characterization of Biomass Biowaste and Related By products Book Summary : This book provides authoritative information, techniques and data necessary for the appropriate understanding of biomass and biowaste (understood as contaminated biomass) composition and behaviour while processed in various conditions and technologies. Numerous techniques for characterizing biomass, biowaste and by-product streams exist in literature. However, there lacks a reference book where these techniques are gathered in a single book, although such information is in increasingly high demand. This handbook provides a wealth of characterization methods, protocols, standards, databases and references relevant to various biomass, biowaste materials and by-products. It specifically addresses sampling and preconditioning methods, extraction techniques of elements and molecules, as well as biochemical, mechanical and thermal characterization methods. Furthermore, advanced and innovative methods under development are highlighted. The characterization will allow the analysis, identification and quantification of molecules and species including biomass feedstocks and related conversion products. The characterization will also provide insight into physical, mechanical and thermal properties of biomass and biowaste as well as the resulting by-products.

Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering Book PDF
✏Book Title : Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering
✏Author : Al Emran Ismail
✏Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
✏Release Date : 2013-04-10
✏Pages : 1050
✏ISBN : 9783038260165
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering Book Summary : Selected, peer reviewed papers from the 3rd International Conference on Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering 2012, November 20 – 21, 2012, Malaysia. The conference offers a platform for researchers, academicians, technologist, policy makers, industrialists and students to share, discuss and highlight their research findings particularly works that related to research and technological developments and knowledge transfers keeping in mind the main theme Sustainable Engineering towards Green Technology

Innovative Product Design And Intelligent Manufacturing Systems Book PDF
✏Book Title : Innovative Product Design and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems
✏Author : BBVL. Deepak
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date : 2020-03-13
✏Pages : 1100
✏ISBN : 9789811526961
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Innovative Product Design and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems Book Summary : This book gathers selected research articles from the International Conference on Innovative Product Design and Intelligent Manufacturing System (ICIPDIMS 2019), held at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India. The book discusses latest methods and advanced tools from different areas of design and manufacturing technology. The main topics covered include design methodologies, industry 4.0, smart manufacturing, and advances in robotics among others. The contents of this book are useful for academics as well as professionals working in industrial design, mechatronics, robotics, and automation.

📒The Biochar Solution ✍ Albert Bates

The Biochar Solution Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Biochar Solution
✏Author : Albert Bates
✏Publisher : New Society Publishers
✏Release Date : 2010-11-23
✏Pages : 208
✏ISBN : 9781550924596
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Biochar Solution Book Summary : How the dirt below our feet can save us from extinction

Biomass Chars Elaboration Characterization And Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biomass Chars Elaboration Characterization and Applications
✏Author : Mejdi Jeguirim
✏Publisher : MDPI
✏Release Date : 2018-04-03
✏Pages : 220
✏ISBN : 9783038426905
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biomass Chars Elaboration Characterization and Applications Book Summary : This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications" that was published in Energies

Biotransformation Of Waste Biomass Into High Value Biochemicals Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals
✏Author : Satinder Kaur Brar
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-09-24
✏Pages : 504
✏ISBN : 9781461480051
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals Book Summary : Agro-industrial wastes are end-products emerging after industrial processing operations and also from their treatment and disposal e.g. solid fruit wastes and sludge. The agro-industrial wastes are often present in multiphase and comprise multicomponent. Nevertheless, these wastes are a goldmine as they possess valuable organic matter which can be diverted towards high value products ranging from polymers to antibiotics to platform chemicals. There have been plenty of books published on bioenergy, enzymes and organic acids, among others. However, this emerging field of biochemical has not yet been covered so far which is an important entity of the biorefinery model from waste biomass and needs to be understood from fundamental, applied as well as commercial perspective which has been laid out in this book.

Biodiesel Synthesis Over Biochar Based Catalyst From Biomass Waste Pomelo Peel Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biodiesel Synthesis Over Biochar based Catalyst from Biomass Waste Pomelo Peel
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1032183728
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biodiesel Synthesis Over Biochar based Catalyst from Biomass Waste Pomelo Peel Book Summary : Highlights: Pomelo peel biochar was first used as support for biodiesel synthesis. After activation by KOH, the porosity of biochar was significantly enhanced. A high biodiesel yield of 98.0% was obtained due to the high basicity of catalyst. The deactivation of catalyst was mainly owing to leaching of the K + ions. Abstract: In the present study, a novel solid carbon catalyst derived from pyrolytic pomelo peel was prepared for biodiesel synthesis. The composition, structure and texture of prepared catalysts were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), N2 adsorption/desorption and the Hammett indicator method. The characterization results indicated that the surface area and pore volume of the biochar were increased significantly by chemical activation treatment with KOH. The best-performing catalyst was that loaded with 25 wt.% K2 CO3 on the prepared biochar and calcined at 600 °C, due to it resulting in the highest conversion of the oil to FAME at 65 °C, reaction time of 2.5 h, 8:1 methanol/oil molar ratio and a catalyst amount of 6 wt.%. This extraordinary activity was identified owing to the strongest basic sites. Besides, after reusing for 8 cycles, the catalyst could exhibit a rather high biodiesel yield (above 82%). The deactivation of catalyst was mainly owing to K + ions leaching to the product. These results indicated that the pomelo peel biochar supported catalyst demonstrated promise for biodiesel synthesis.

📒Biochar And Soil Biota ✍ Natalia Ladygina

Biochar And Soil Biota Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biochar and Soil Biota
✏Author : Natalia Ladygina
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2013-02-21
✏Pages : 278
✏ISBN : 9781466576483
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biochar and Soil Biota Book Summary : Biochar, a biomass that is burned at very high temperature in the absence of oxygen, has recently become an interesting subject of study. Biochar is highly stable and does not degrade; it possesses physical properties that assist in retention of nutrients in the soil. The use of biochar will undoubtedly have a significant impact not only on soil nutrients but also on soil organism communities and their functions. This book focuses on how the ecology and biology of soil organisms is affected by the addition of biochar to soils. It takes into account direct and indirect effects of biochar addition to soils, on the soil carbon cycle, impact on plant resistance to foliar and soilborne disease, interactions with pathogenic, mycorhizal and saprophytic fungi. The stability of biochar in soil environment is also discussed. Special focus has been put on application of biochar to remediate polluted soils, taking into account possible toxic effects of biochar on soil fauna. This book will be useful to students and researchers in agronomy, biology, ecology, and environmental managers from both academic as well as industrial organizations.

Application Of Hydrothermal Reactions To Biomass Conversion Book PDF
✏Book Title : Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion
✏Author : Fangming Jin
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2014-04-11
✏Pages : 409
✏ISBN : 9783642544583
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion Book Summary : This book reviews the recent advances in hydrothermal conversion of biomass into chemicals and fuels, and consists of 15 chapters. It introduces the properties of high-temperature water, the merits of hydrothermal conversion of biomass, and some novel hydrothermal conversion processes, mainly including hydrothermal production of value-added products, hydrothermal gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization. This book introduces a new concept for counteracting the imbalance in the carbon cycle, which is caused by the rapid consumption of fossil fuels in anthropogenic activities in combination with the slow formation of fossil fuels. Accordingly, the book is useful in conveying a fundamental understanding of hydrothermal conversion of biomass in the carbon cycle so that a contribution can be made to achieving sustainable energy and environment. It is also interesting to a wide readership in various fields including chemical, geologic and environmental science and engineering. Fangming Jin is a Distinguished Professor at the School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

Optimization Of Food Waste Compost With The Use Of Biochar Book PDF
✏Book Title : Optimization of Food Waste Compost with the Use of Biochar
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1052004038
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Optimization of Food Waste Compost with the Use of Biochar Book Summary : Abstract: This paper aims to examine the influence of biochar produced from lawn waste in accelerating the degradation and mineralization rates of food waste compost. Biochar produced at two different temperatures (350 and 450°C) was applied at the rates 10 and 15% (w/w) of the total waste to an in-vessel compost bioreactor for evaluating its effects on food waste compost. The quality of compost was assessed against stabilization indices such as moisture contents (MC), electrical conductivity (EC), organic matters (OM) degradation, change in total carbon (TC) and mineral nitrogen contents such as ammonium (NH4 + ) and nitrate (NO3 − ). The use of biochar significantly improved the composting process and physiochemical properties of the final compost. Results showed that in comparison to control trial, biochar amended compost mixtures rapidly achieved the thermophilic temperature, increased the OM degradation by 14.4–15.3%, concentration of NH4 + by 37.8–45.6% and NO3 − by 50–62%. The most prominent effects in term of achieving rapid thermophilic temperature and a higher concentration of NH4 + and NO3 − were observed at 15% (w/w) biochar. According to compost quality standard of United States (US), California, Germany, and Austria, the compost stability as a result of biochar addition was achieved in 50–60 days. Nonetheless, the biochar produced at 450°C had similar effects as to biochar produced at 350°C for most of the compost parameters. Therefore, it is recommended to produce biochar at 350°C to reduce the energy requirements for resource recovery of biomass and should be added at a concentration of 15% (w/w) to the compost bioreactor for achieving a stable compost. Graphical abstract: Highlights: Biochar was produced from lawn waste at 350 and 450°C. Biochar was applied to food waste compost at rates of 10 and 15% of the feedstock. High degradation and mineralization of food waste were achieved at 15% biochar. Compost stability as a result of biochar addition was achieved in 50–60 days. Biochar produced at 450°C had similar effects as to biochar produced at 350°C.

Biochar In European Soils And Agriculture Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biochar in European Soils and Agriculture
✏Author : Simon Shackley
✏Publisher : Routledge
✏Release Date : 2016-02-22
✏Pages : 302
✏ISBN : 9781134654871
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biochar in European Soils and Agriculture Book Summary : This user-friendly book introduces biochar to potential users in the professional sphere. It de-mystifies the scientific, engineering and managerial issues surrounding biochar for the benefit of audiences including policy makers, landowners and farmers, land use, agricultural and environmental managers and consultants, industry and lobby groups and NGOs. The book reviews state-of-the-art knowledge in an approachable way for the non-scientist, covering all aspects of biochar production, soil science, agriculture, environmental impacts, economics, law and regulation and climate change policy. Chapters provide ‘hands-on’ practical information, including how to evaluate biochar and understand what it is doing when added to the soil, how to combine biochar with other soil amendments (such as manure and composts) to achieve desired outcomes, and how to ensure safe and effective use. The authors also present research findings from the first coordinated European biochar field trial and summarize European field trial data. Explanatory boxes, infographics and concise summaries of key concepts are included throughout to make the subject more understandable and approachable.

Prospects For Biochar In A Bio Waste Cascade Book PDF
✏Book Title : Prospects for Biochar in a Bio Waste Cascade
✏Author : Daniel Meyer-Kohlstock
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1011675644
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Prospects for Biochar in a Bio Waste Cascade Book Summary : In the early 2000s the pre-Columbian, anthropologically produced black soil in the Amazon basin, "Terra Preta de Índio", received greater scientific attention. Compared to the surrounding poor soils, this very fertile anthrosol contains significantly higher levels of microorganisms and nutrients. The reason for this was determined to be the likewise high levels of charred biomass. This stable carbon, now called biochar, has since been intensively examined as an option to improve soil and to store carbon. Although the creation of Terra Preta was most likely based on a purposeful utilization of organic residues from households and gardens, biochar plays no role in the current recycling of bio-waste. However, the implementation of biochar could lead to many improvements. Results from agricultural research suggest that not only the yield capacity of soils can be increased but also the process performance of composting and biogas plants. The latter is especially relevant since currently about 40% of all collected bio-waste in Germany is recycled in an energy-material cascade consisting of anaerobic digestion and composting. The use of biochar in this cascade could then sequentially increase biogas yields, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve compost quality. To realize the aforementioned advantages, the concept of biochar has to be integrated into the existing bio-waste cascade as practically as possible. This was done by the development of a theoretical scenario that allowed the analysis of energy and material flows to evaluate biochar's recycling performance. Furthermore, the legal and economic framework were examined to assess the feasibility of the extended cascade and to suggest possible adjustments to the frameworks.

📒Agricultural Waste And Residues ✍ Anna Aladjadjiyan

Agricultural Waste And Residues Book PDF
✏Book Title : Agricultural Waste and Residues
✏Author : Anna Aladjadjiyan
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2018-08-29
✏Pages : 148
✏ISBN : 9781789235722
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Agricultural Waste and Residues Book Summary : This book is dedicated to the reuse of waste and residues from the agricultural sector. Plant residues, as well as animal manure and residues from animal breeding, contain useful elements that can be processed for production of fertilizers, compost for soil recultivation, and biofuels. The emerging energy and resources crisis calls for development of sustainable reuse of waste and residues. This book contains eight chapters divided into four sections. The first section contains the introductory chapter from the editor. The second section is related to the preparation of fertilizers and compost for soil amelioration from agricultural residues and waste water. The third section considers the use of agricultural waste for solid biofuels and biogas. The fourth section discusses sustainability and risk assessment related to the use of agricultural waste and residues.

Hydrothermal Technology In Biomass Utilization Conversion Book PDF
✏Book Title : Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization Conversion
✏Author : David Chiaramonti
✏Publisher : MDPI
✏Release Date : 2020-04-30
✏Pages : 166
✏ISBN : 9783039286768
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization Conversion Book Summary : This book addresses a key innovative technology for decarbonization of the energy system: hydrothermal processing. It basically consists of treating biomass and wastes in a wet form, under pressure and temperature condition. This approach is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. The hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste, and residues, thus, raised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue collects recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. It is a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Biochar Systems For Smallholders In Developing Countries Book PDF
✏Book Title : Biochar Systems for Smallholders in Developing Countries
✏Author : Sebastian B. Scholz
✏Publisher : World Bank Publications
✏Release Date : 2014-06-23
✏Pages : 230
✏ISBN : 9780821395264
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Biochar Systems for Smallholders in Developing Countries Book Summary : This report offers a review of what is known about opportunities and risks of biochar systems in developing countries. Its aim is to fill in critical knowledge gaps between the biochar research community and development practicioners on the ground.

Energy Systems And Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Energy Systems and Environment
✏Author : Pavel Tsvetkov
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2018-09-12
✏Pages : 230
✏ISBN : 9781789237108
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Energy Systems and Environment Book Summary : This book looks at environmental aspects of energy technologies, from common traditional sources in use, new sources, and emerging sources and technologies. The objective of this book is to serve as a one-stop comprehensive information resource on energy and environment topics, from energy science to energy engineering to energy politics. Starting with science and technology topics we link them to economics and politics showcasing interconnections between energy sources, energy utilization, energy conversion, and sustainability under the common theme of energy and environment. The book achieves its objective by offering and integrating deeply technical and socioeconomics papers together on energy and environment topics.

Material Science Technology And Global Sustainability Ii Book PDF
✏Book Title : Material Science Technology and Global Sustainability II
✏Author : Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan
✏Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
✏Release Date : 2019-03-28
✏Pages : 438
✏ISBN : 9783035732047
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Material Science Technology and Global Sustainability II Book Summary : This volume of the journal presents readers with the collection of papers by results of the 4th International Conference on Global Sustainability and Chemical Engineering (ICGSCE 2018) which was successfully held during 5-6 September 2018 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The topics mentioned in this collection cover a wide range of modern materials science and chemical engineering in the aspect of clean and sustainable development.

Bioenergy Research Advances And Applications Book PDF
✏Book Title : Bioenergy Research Advances and Applications
✏Author : Vijai G. Gupta
✏Publisher : Newnes
✏Release Date : 2013-12-05
✏Pages : 500
✏ISBN : 9780444595645
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Bioenergy Research Advances and Applications Book Summary : Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post-graduates, researchers and practitioners studying and working in field of the bioenergy. It is an invaluable information resource on biomass-based biofuels for fundamental and applied research, catering to researchers in the areas of bio-hydrogen, bioethanol, bio-methane and biorefineries, and the use of microbial processes in the conversion of biomass into biofuels. Reviews all existing and promising technologies for production of advanced biofuels in addition to bioenergy policies and research funding Cutting-edge research concepts for biofuels production using biological and biochemical routes, including microbial fuel cells Includes production methods and conversion processes for all types of biofuels, including bioethanol and biohydrogen, and outlines the pros and cons of each

Waste Biorefineries Future Energy Green Products And Waste Treatment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Waste Biorefineries Future Energy Green Products and Waste Treatment
✏Author :
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2019-09-24
✏Pages : 184
✏ISBN : 9782889459933
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Waste Biorefineries Future Energy Green Products and Waste Treatment Book Summary : Energy recovery from waste resources holds a significant role in the sustainable waste management hierarchy to support the concept of circular economies and to mitigate the challenges of waste originated problems of sanitation, environment, and public health. Today, waste disposal to landfills is the most widely used methodology, particularly in developing countries, because of limited budgets and lack of efficient infrastructure and facilities to maintain efficient and practical global standards. As a consequence, the dump-sites or non-sanitary landfills have become the significant sources of greenhouse gases emissions, soil and water contamination, unpleasant odors, leachate, and disease spreading vectors, flies, and rodents. However, waste can be utilized to produce a range of potential products such as energy, fuels and value-added products under waste biorefineries. A holistic and quantitative view, such as waste biorefinery, on waste management must be linked to the actual country, taking into account its socio-economic situation, local waste sources, and composition, as well as the available markets for the recovered energy and products. Therefore, it is critical to understand that solutions cannot be just copied from one region to the others. In fact, all waste handling, transportation, and treatment can represent a burden to the cities’ environment and macro and micro economics, except for the benefits obtained from recovered materials and energy. Equally significant is a clear and quantitative understanding of the industrial, and public potential of utilizing recovered materials and energy in the markets as these can be reached without exacerbating the environmental issues using excessive transport. The book explores new advancements and discoveries on the development of emerging waste-to-energy technologies, practical implementation, and lessons learned from sustainable wastemanagement practices under waste biorefinery concept, which will accelerate the growth of circular economies in the world. The articles presented in this book have been written by expert researchers and academics working in institutions at different countries across the world including Germany, Greece, Japan, South Korea, China, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Iran, and India. The research articles have been arranged into three main subject categories; 1) Resource recovery from waste, 2) Waste to energy technologies and 3) Waste biorefineries. This book will serve as an important resource for research students, academics, industry, policy makers, and government agencies working in the field of integrated waste management, energy and resource recovery, waste to energy technologies, waste biorefineries etc. The editorial team of this book is very grateful to all the authors for their excellent contributions and making the book successful.

Application Of Biochar As An Additive To Enhance Biomethane Potential In Anaerobic Digestion Book PDF
✏Book Title : Application of Biochar as an Additive to Enhance Biomethane Potential in Anaerobic Digestion
✏Author : Cecilia B. Frias Flores
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2020
✏Pages : 81
✏ISBN : OCLC:1155888899
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Application of Biochar as an Additive to Enhance Biomethane Potential in Anaerobic Digestion Book Summary : "Energy and useful materials can be produced by applying biological and thermal conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis. Agricultural and industrial wastes seem to be the most attractive substrates since they are essentially unlimited resources. Pyrolysis has been used mostly for the conversion of biomass to bio-crude and biochar, a stable form of nearly pure carbon that has application in many agricultural and environmental applications. There is a widespread literature describing use of biochar as an additive to stabilize the anaerobic digestion process. We studied the effects that biochar has on the biomethane potential (BMP) during anaerobic digestion of a model food waste under mesophilic conditions (37oC). Mixed food waste (FW) and dry manure (DM) were first converted into biochar at 500 and 800oC using a laboratory pyrolysis furnace. Biochar loadings of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 %g/gVS were added into 500 mL digester vessels. It was found that biochar provides enhanced stability when added to AD because biochar acts as a buffer in the system. Food waste biochar produced at 500oC with a loading of 1% resulted in an increase of 11.7% in BMP when compared to the control. It was determined that biochar produced at lower temperature has lower pH and a greater effect in the upgrading of biomethane. Based on the experimental results, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) model was developed to understand the value that adding biochar would have to an operating digester, assuming a 10% enhancement in methane production with 1% biochar addition, based on the total mass of waste processed. The model included a sensitivity analysis in which an increase in food waste loading of 1, 5, 10 and 20% to the AD system was studied. The TEA revealed that food waste tipping fees drive the economics of working AD systems and that the addition of biochar has the possibility of boosting the economics for scenarios where biochar is purchased at low to mid-range prices, or when a pyrolysis system is installed on-site to produce biochar."--Abstract.

Recent Advancements In Biofuels And Bioenergy Utilization Book PDF
✏Book Title : Recent Advancements in Biofuels and Bioenergy Utilization
✏Author : Prakash Kumar Sarangi
✏Publisher : Springer
✏Release Date : 2018-09-29
✏Pages : 402
✏ISBN : 9789811313073
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Recent Advancements in Biofuels and Bioenergy Utilization Book Summary : The concerns relating to global warming, climate change, and increasing energy demands have led to significant research towards the development of alternative energy to substitute the fossil energy sources. Biomass-based energy or biofuels are highly promising due to many perceptible environmental and socio-economic advantages. Cutting-edge academic research and advanced industrial product development have created tremendous scope for the implementation of biofuels at a global scale to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and supplement the escalating energy demands. The prime focus of this book is to provide an overview of the different technologies utilized to harness the chemical energy from plant-based non-edible biomass and other organic wastes in the form of solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels. The opportunities and challenges of different biomass conversion technologies, especially biomass-to-liquid, biomass-to-gas and gas-to-liquid routes, as well as biomass pretreatments, densification, anaerobic digestion, reforming, transesterification, supercritical fluid extraction, microalgal carbon sequestration, life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis have been comprehensively discussed in this book. This book is an amalgamation of fifteen different chapters each with distinctive investigations and a collective focus relating to the transition from fossil fuels towards carbon-neutral biofuels. This book serves as a benchmark for academic and industrial researchers involved in exploring the true potentials of plant residues and waste organic matter to produce alternative renewable fuels. To realize the real promises of bioenergy, this book attempts to assess the biorefining approaches, biofuel production and application, and environmental sustainability.