Bilateral And Regional Trade Agreements
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📒Bilateral And Regional Trade Agreements ✍ Simon Lester
✏Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements Book Summary : This volume is a comprehensive study of bilateral and regional trade agreements.
📒Bilateral And Regional Trade Agreements ✍ Congressional Service
✏Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements Book Summary : Congress plays a prominent role in shaping, debating, and approving legislation to implement trade agreements, and over the past three decades, bilateral and regional trade agreements (RTAs, or free trade agreements (FTAs) in the U.S. context) have become a primary source of new international trade liberalization commitments. The United States has historically pursued FTAs to open markets for U.S. goods, services, and agriculture, and establish trade rules and disciplines to enhance overall domestic and global economic growth. They are actively debated and can be contentious due to concerns over the potential employment effects of greater import competition, among other reasons. RTAs are reciprocal preferential arrangements among two or more parties. Their content has evolved significantly, partly as a result of change in the international economy where new trade barriers have been erected and/or where RTAs may provide a testing ground for new trade rules for potential future multilateral agreement. The United States historically has aimed for comprehensive coverage in eliminating barriers to trade and addressing all sectors in its FTAs. In addition to the reduction and elimination of tariffs and more traditional nontariff trade barriers, U.S. FTAs also cover services trade, enhance intellectual property rights (IPR), provide investment protections, and include enforceable labor and environmental commitments. Some countries pursue more limited agreements-only half of RTAs worldwide cover services and they rarely include labor and environmental provisions. Since 1990, the number of RTAs in force globally has grown six-fold from fewer than 50 to nearly 300. All 164 members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are now party to at least one RTA; as of 2014 each member had on average 11 RTA partners. The United States began negotiating FTAs in the 1980s, and as of 2018, is party to 14 such agreements involving 20 trading partners. The multilateral trading system, meanwhile, has not produced a broad set of new trade liberalization agreements (excluding more limited scope agreements, such as the Trade Facilitation Agreement) since the Uruguay Round, which also established the WTO in 1995. In the current environment of stalled multilateral negotiations, RTAs provide an alternative venue to pursue trade liberalization and establish new rules on emerging issues. RTAs are, however, inherently discriminatory given their limited membership (i.e., they provide preferential treatment to some countries and not others), leading to debate over their global economic effect and whether they serve to facilitate future multilateral agreements or lead to the creation of competing trade blocs. U.S. exporters benefit from the preferential aspects of FTAs when they gain better access to FTA partner markets than their foreign competitors, but may be similarly harmed when third parties negotiate agreements that do not include the United States. In some ways, the United States has pulled back from its recent FTA policy. Under the Obama Administration, the United States pursued two major regional FTA negotiations, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) including Japan and 10 other Asia-Pacific nations, and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) with the European Union. These FTAs would have nearly doubled the share of U.S. trade occurring with FTA partners. The Trump Administration, however, has criticized existing FTAs, withdrawn the United States from the concluded but not enacted TPP, placed the T-TIP negotiations on hold, and initiated renegotiation or modification of the largest U.S. FTAs with Canada, Mexico, and South Korea. The Administration has also stated its intent to negotiate future FTAs on a bilateral rather than multi-party basis.
✏Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements as a Challenge to the Multilateral Trading System San Deminoco Di Fiesole Book Summary : Eintrag für die Universitätsbibliographie.
📒Bilateral And Regional Trade Agreements Commentary And Analysis ✍ Simon Nicholas Lester
✏Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements Commentary and analysis Book Summary :
📒Global Risks ✍ Jana Hertwig
✏Global Risks Book Summary : Over the last decades and especially in the new millennium, global society is increasingly facing new risks and challenges on a global scale, demanding global solutions. With their articles on global risks, the authors have contributed to a topic that suffers from severe under-specification. Their contributions can be summoned up under three headings: Identification and Assessment, Normative Reflections and Alternative Modes of Governance. Each of the assembled articles shows, from very different academic perspectives, how international actors - states as well as regional and international organisations - deal with global risks that in today's globalised world affect not only one state or region, but the international community as a whole.
📒Intellectual Property Free Trade Agreements ✍ Christopher Heath
✏Intellectual Property Free Trade Agreements Book Summary : Intellectual Property and Free Trade Agreements presents the papers of the sixth IP conference organised by the Macau Institute of European Studies (IEEM) on intellectual property law and the economic challenges for Asia. The objective of the conferences is to provide up-to-date information on developments in global intellectual property law and policy and their impact on regional economic and cultural development. The current volume deals with the implications of free trade agreements for the international framework of intellectual property law, a topic of enormous economic and legal importance given the increasing number of free trade agreements in force or under negotiation.
📒Preferential Trade Agreements In The Asia Pacific Region ✍ Tubagus Feridhanusetyawan
✏Preferential Trade Agreements in the Asia Pacific Region Book Summary : Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in the Asia-Pacific region have proliferated rapidly over the past five years and are creating a complex web of intersecting bilateral and regional trade agreements. This paper describes the proliferation of these PTAs, discusses their characteristics and implementation, and assesses their potential effects. Realizing the potential gains from Asia-Pacific PTAs requires a commitment to liberalize sensitive sectors, to maintain consistent provisions, and to enforce agreements. Other factors, including administrative complications, also could undermine any potential gains.
✏Bilateral Trade Agreements Issues and Concerns for India Book Summary :
📒Bilateral Trade Agreements ✍ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance. Subcommittee on International Trade
✏Bilateral Trade Agreements Book Summary :
📒Bilateral Trade Arrangements In The Asia Pacific ✍ Vinod K. Aggarwal
✏Bilateral Trade Arrangements in the Asia Pacific Book Summary : This book is imperative reading for policymakers and scholars, and will prove an invaluable resource for students of Asian Studies, politics, economics and management especially those interested in international trade, bilateral trade agreements, political economy, business strategy and trade.