Between the Lines of Genetic Code

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  • Author : Leonid Padyukov
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Pages : 232 pages
  • ISBN : 012806174X
  • Rating : /5 from reviews
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Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Leonid Padyukov
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code lays out methodologies and tools for the measurement and evaluation of gene-gene and gene-environment studies and gives perspective on the future of this discipline. The book begins by defining terms for interaction studies, describing methodologies, and critically assessing the viability of current study designs and the possibilities for integrating designs. It then provides recent applications data with case studies in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myositis and other complex human diseases. Last, it examines current

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Klementy Shchetynsky,Leonid Padyukov
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Functional analysis of genetic variants in association with human complex diseases remains a challenge for modern research. Discovery of gene–gene interactions may represent an additional tool for identifying specific polymorphisms involved in disease development. It not only identifies new candidate genes for mechanistic studies, but also suggests biological relations in the function of these genes with certain variants in developing disease. We describe a few examples of the studies where a link between statistical evidence of gene–gene interaction

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Jesper Tegnér,Francesco Marabita,David Gomez-Cabrero
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Following the success of genome-wide association studies, it is now important to unravel interactions between genes as well as between genes and environment. Here we discuss how to interpret higher order statistical interactions in terms of underlying biological processes purportedly generating such dependencies. In this chapter, we specifically review how biological networks, such as those generated from systems biological approaches, could possibly facilitate the interpretation of observed interactions in the development of complex phenotypes, e.g., complex diseases. We conclude

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Robert G Cooper,Hector Chinoy,Ingrid E. Lundberg
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) represent a complex spectrum of overlapping connective tissue diseases which have skeletal muscle involvement as one of their major components. While recent immunogenetic research has shown that myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies (MSAs/MAAs) are clearly associated with and thus define many clinical IIM subsets, future research is needed to clarify whether these antibodies (Abs) are just a secondary epiphenomenon, i.e., representing surrogate markers for underlying human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and or genotypes, or

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Marylyn D. Ritchie
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Gene–gene interactions are a critical component of the genetic architecture of complex, human traits. Unfortunately, the detection and characterization of interactions is a challenge. This is due to a number of factors including the combinatorial explosion of possible interactions in large-scale genomic data, limited power in small sample sizes, and potential difficulty interpreting or validating the resulting interaction models. A number of data mining methods have been developed to deal with one or more of these challenges. In this

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Ingrid Kockum,Lars Alfredsson,Tomas Olsson
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease where both environmental and genetic risk factors play a role. More than 50 genetic polymorphisms have been identified in association with MS mostly by mapping close to genes involved in immunoregulation. Several environmental factors have been associated with risk for developing MS, including smoking, obesity, EBV infections, and lack of sun exposure. Interactions between major genetic risk factors and environmental exposures have been observed making it possible to begin to form groups of risk

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Leonid Padyukov,Lars Alfredsson
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with poorly understood etiology. Over the years, many genetic risk factors and some environmental risk factors were discovered to be important for RA. Genetic variants from the HLA-DRB1 locus, the shared epitope alleles, in different populations show a relatively strong and consistent effect on risk of RA. Non-HLA genetic risk factors have only a moderate effect. Gene–gene and gene–environment interactions were suspected to be important with regard to the risk

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Bo Ding
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Genome-wide interaction studies is an extremely challenging problem in statistics, in which conventional methods are often inadequate in terms of both power and computational efficiency. An exhaustive search for genome-wide gene–gene interactions becomes feasible with modern cluster computing run on graphics processing units. However, the large number of tests accompanying the search raises a serious multiple testing problem. A way to overcome these limits is to apply a filtering step prior to the combinatorial method and to analyze only

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Igor Sandalov,Leonid Padyukov
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

We introduce new quantitative characteristics of the population using an analogy to the system of multi-spin molecules: the disease fields, which may depend on interactions, and the susceptibility to disease as derivative of genetic vector’s (GV’s) frequency of cases with respect to these fields. The genetic vector’s approach (GVA) is applied to statistical analysis of the interaction of two SNP haplotype of HTR2A and shared epitope (SE) alleles in relation to development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Camilla Bengtsson,Henrik Källberg
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Many diseases are believed to occur as a result of interactions between genes and environment. In epidemiology, there are several study designs, such as cohort and case-control studies, that can be used to analyze biological interaction. In this chapter, we discuss crucial issues in the design stage of epidemiologic studies, how different measures of disease occurrence and measures of associations are calculated, and how systematic and random errors might hamper the accuracy of the results. By properly addressing these issues,

Between the Lines of Genetic Code

Between the Lines of Genetic Code
  • Author : Henrik Källberg,Camilla Bengtsson
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 28 September 2013
GET THIS BOOK Between the Lines of Genetic Code

This chapter deals with estimation of interaction through different statistical models. Interaction is classified into two different classes, antagonistic and synergistic effects. An antagonistic effect is said to be present if the combination of two factors decrease the measure of interest as compared to the expected sum of the single effect of each factor. Synergistic effect is present if the combination of two factors increases the measure of interest more than the expected sum based on each factor. Furthermore, this

Evolution of the Genetic Code

Evolution of the Genetic Code
  • Author : S. Osawa,Shōzō Ōsawa,Executive Researcher of Biohistory Research Hall Osaka and Professor (Emeritus) Syozo Osawa,Syozo Osawa
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • Release : 18 October 1995
GET THIS BOOK Evolution of the Genetic Code

The genetic code was deciphered experimentally around 1966 and for a number of years scientists considered it to be universal for all forms of life. In 1981 researchers shocked the scientific community with the discovery that the code differed in mitochondria and certain other organisms, evidence that the genetic code was still evolving. This book discusses the distribution and origin of the non-universal codes and examines the possible mechanisms of code changes, making it essential reading for all those interested in evolutionary

Exons Introns and Talking Genes

Exons  Introns  and Talking Genes
  • Author : Christopher Wills
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release : 18 October 1991
GET THIS BOOK Exons Introns and Talking Genes

This book tells the story behind one of the most difficult--and ultimately rewarding--scientific endeavors in modern history: a multibillion-dollar international undertaking that will revolutionize our understanding of the human body. Exons, Introns, and Talking Genes is a scientist's view of the Human Genome Project. Wills explains the science as no layperson could, telling the story of the scientists involved in the project, the biomedical breakthroughs that led up to it, and how the new information it generates will change the