Antibiotics And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In The Environment

Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment
✏Author : Patricia L. Keen
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2012-01-24
✏Pages : 602
✏ISBN : 9780470905425
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment Book Summary : Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Antibiotics And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Environment
✏Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
✏Publisher : Elsevier
✏Release Date : 2019-11-22
✏Pages : 432
✏ISBN : 9780128188835
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Environment Book Summary : Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (AMR) in the Environment summarizes and updates information on antibiotic producing organisms and their resistance and entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment. As antibiotic use continues to rise in healthcare, their fate, bioavailability and biomonitoring, and impacts on environment and public health are becoming increasingly important. The book addresses the impact of antibiotics and AMR to environment and public health and risk assessment. Moreover, it focused on the metagenomics and molecular techniques for the detection of antibiotics and antimicrobial genes. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as treatment technologies for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARGs-impacted environment, and bioremediation approaches. Summarizes and updates information on antibiotics and AMR/ARGs production and its fate and transport in the environment Includes phytoremediation and bioremediation technologies for environmental management Provides analysis of risk assessment of antibiotic resistance genes to help understand the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs

Antibiotics And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes
✏Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date : 2020-04-07
✏Pages : 456
✏ISBN : 9783030404222
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Book Summary : This volume summarizes and updates information about antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)/antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) production, including their entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment, their use in hospital and associated waste, global and temporal trends in use and spread of antibiotics, AMR and ARG. Antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance genes due to manure and agricultural waste applications, bioavailability, biomonitoring, and their Epidemiological, ecological and public health effects. The book addresses the antibiotic and AMR/ARG risk assessment and treatment technologies, for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARG impacted environments The book's expert contributions span 20 chapters, and offer a comprehensive framework for better understanding and analyzing the environmental and social impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs. Readers will have access to recent and updated models regarding the interpretation of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs in environment and biomonitoring studies, and will learn about the management options require to appropriately mitigate environmental contaminants and pollution. The book will be of interest to students, teachers, researchers, policy makers and environmental organizations.

Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance In The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment
✏Author : Carlos F. Amabile-Cuevas
✏Publisher : CRC Press
✏Release Date : 2015-12-30
✏Pages : 136
✏ISBN : 9781315679419
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment Book Summary : The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment (i.e., outside of clinical settings, such as antibiotic-treated patients or antibiotic-impregnated locations, such as hospitals) is a cause of growing worldwide concern, as it reveals the extensive impact of antibiotic abuse and other huma

Role And Prevalence Of Antibiosis And The Related Resistance Genes In The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment
✏Author : Sylvie Nazaret
✏Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
✏Release Date : 2015-05-13
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889195213
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment Book Summary : It becomes increasingly clear that the basis of antibiotic resistance problem among bacterial pathogens is not confined to the borders of clinical microbiology but has broader ecological and evolutionary associations. This Research Topic “Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment” in Frontiers in Microbiology, section Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, presents the examples of occurrence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the wide range of environments, from the grasslands of the Colombian Andes, to the dairy farms and small animal veterinary hospitals in the United Stated, and to the various environments of Continental Europe and Indochina. Besides, various genetic mechanisms and selection/co-selection factors contributing to the dissemination and maintenance of antibiotic resistance genes are presented. The topic is finalized by the mathematical modeling approach to access the probability of rare horizontal gene transfer events in bacterial populations

Antimicrobials And Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment
✏Author : Cecilia StĂ„lsby Lundborg
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2020-06-15
✏Pages : 248
✏ISBN : 3039280309
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment Book Summary :

Impact Of Point Sources On Antibiotic Resistance Genes In The Natural Environment A Systematic Review Of The Evidence Book PDF
✏Book Title : Impact of Point Sources on Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Natural Environment a Systematic Review of the Evidence
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051875766
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Impact of Point Sources on Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Natural Environment a Systematic Review of the Evidence Book Summary : Abstract: There is a growing concern about the role of the environment in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this systematic review, we summarize evidence for increases of ARG in the natural environment associated with potential sources of ARB and ARG such as agricultural facilities and wastewater treatment plants. A total of 5247 citations were identified, including studies that ascertained both ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were screened for relevance to the question and methodology. This paper summarizes the evidence only for those studies with ARG outcomes ( n = 24). Sixteen studies were at high ( n = 3) or at unclear ( n = 13) risk of bias in the estimation of source effects due to lack of information or failure to control for confounders. Statistical methods were used in nine studies; three studies assessed the effect of multiple sources using modeling approaches, and none reported effect measures. Most studies reported higher ARG concentration downstream/near the source, but heterogeneous findings hindered making any sound conclusions. To quantify increases of ARG in the environment due to specific point sources, there is a need for studies that emphasize analytic or design control of confounding, and that provide effect measure estimates.

Analyzing Possible Intersections In The Resistome Among Human Animal And Environment Matrices Book PDF
✏Book Title : Analyzing possible intersections in the resistome among human animal and environment matrices
✏Author : Stefania Stefani
✏Publisher : Frontiers E-books
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9782889191215
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Analyzing possible intersections in the resistome among human animal and environment matrices Book Summary : The astonishing development of resistance is one of the most worrisome problems of the last 20 years. In particular, the accumulation of resistance determinants that are able to destroy different antibiotic families at the same time bringing about multi-drug resistant (MDR) or pan-drug resistant (PDR) phenotypes, is a phenomenon almost exclusively known in clinical practice, in which resistance is maintained even under a strong selective pressure. Mutations, acquisition of resistance genes by lateral gene transfer (LTG), and selection of intrinsically resistant species are at the basis of this diffused problem. Many studies have characterized resistant bacteria, genes, mechanisms of resistance and transfer in clinical settings, as well as clarifying the role of antibiotics (both naturally produced by microorganisms and by completely synthetic processes) in driving the resistant selection, the evolution of new mechanisms and the emergence new resistant species. However, other data, until now reported in a rather sporadic way, are emerging on the possible role of animals and some specific environmental hot-spots (ground water, soil, etc) in which resistance can develop thanks to an efficient organization in clusters of genes that are then able to be selected and spread, ultimately functioning as a reservoir for further transmission to humans. Origin of resistance genes that we now know to belong to the so-called mobilome, and their mechanism of transferability among species and in different microbiota, has to be considered a real challenge for the future evolution and antibiotic resistance in both pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. This Research Topic has the aim of collecting contributions from different experts in the antibiotic resistance field, covering aspects of resistance in specific microorganisms and in diverse environments.

📒Antimicrobial Resistance ✍ Maria Cristina Ossiprandi

Antimicrobial Resistance Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antimicrobial Resistance
✏Author : Maria Cristina Ossiprandi
✏Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
✏Release Date : 2015-11-26
✏Pages : 140
✏ISBN : 9789535122227
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antimicrobial Resistance Book Summary : Antibiotic resistance has become a worldwide health issue, globally recognized as the first priority by WHO. Many forms of resistance can spread with remarkable speed and cross international boundaries. World health leaders are devoting efforts to the problem by planning strategies for monitoring the effectiveness of public health interventions and detecting new trends and threats. This volume focuses on the problem from different perspectives, taking into consideration geographical dissemination (soil and water), human medicine (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and veterinary (Enterococcus spp.) impact and molecular analysis. The purpose of this volume is to provide a useful tool for control and prevention and to discuss useful epidemiological data concerning ways of obtaining an accurate picture of resistance in different communities.

Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes As Environmental Pollutants In Gmo Pristine Agricultural Soils In Austria Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes as Environmental Pollutants in GMO pristine Agricultural Soils in Austria
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2015
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1052047165
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes as Environmental Pollutants in GMO pristine Agricultural Soils in Austria Book Summary : Abstract: Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph ( 3â€Č )- IIa / npt II and aph(3â€Č)-IIIa/npt III – frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides – was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by npt II /npt III-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for npt II (median: 150copies/g soil; range: 31–856) and 85% for npt III (1190copies/g soil; 13–61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of npt III carriers was 14-fold higher compared to npt II. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0–3.3%) were positive for npt III, none for npt II (0–0.8%). The npt II-load of the studied soils was low rendering npt II a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. Highlights: ARM genes may act as environmental pollutants under certain conditions. Vital criteria for rating are low endemic presence and anthropogenic ARG immission. Agricultural soils were rarely positive for npt II with few gene copy numbers. Most fields were npt III positive with variable but also increased allele frequency. Npt II/III qualify as pollutants in the tested settings with low endemic abundances. Abstract : ARM genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic activities raise their abundance above naturally occurring background levels in exposed ecosystems.

Functional Metagenomics To Discover Antibiotic Resistance Genes In Natural Environments Book PDF
✏Book Title : Functional Metagenomics to Discover Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Natural Environments
✏Author : Heather Kae Allen
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2009
✏Pages : 134
✏ISBN : WISC:89106362767
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Functional Metagenomics to Discover Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Natural Environments Book Summary :

The Ecology Of Antibiotic Resistance Book PDF
✏Book Title : The Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance
✏Author : Suzanne Marie Young
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages : 108
✏ISBN : OCLC:1102389678
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏The Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Book Summary : Antibiotic resistance is a public health crisis and the results of the studies presented here contribute data towards a better understanding of environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. The research has broad implications for public health, environmental policy and ecosystem management.

Antibiotics In Runoff And Soil From Dairy Manure Treated Fields Subject To Varied Rainfall Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotics in Runoff and Soil from Dairy Manure Treated Fields Subject to Varied Rainfall
✏Author : Talia Leventhal
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1117336927
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotics in Runoff and Soil from Dairy Manure Treated Fields Subject to Varied Rainfall Book Summary : Land-application of manure as a nutrient source has many benefits for agriculture; however, as the usage of antibiotics in livestock has increased, concerns have emerged regarding the presence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that are inadvertently introduced into the environment when manure is land-applied. Given that some of the antibiotics used in livestock production are also used to treat humans, increased presence of antibiotic concentrations and antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment are a potential human health concern. Different manure management practices may reduce the mobility of antibiotics in the environment. The goal of this research was to evaluate the plot-scale mobilization in surface runoff and accumulation of antibiotics in agroecosystems that receive manure via one of two application practices: surface broadcast and shallow disk injection. This research helped to determine if current best management practices (BMPs) for mitigation of nutrients and sediments are also applicable for antibiotics. Nine runoff plots with three replicates of three treatments (no manure, surface broadcasting, and shallow disk injection) were subjected to simulated rainfall at an agricultural field site with Hagerstown soil in Rock Springs, PA. The simulated rainfall events were conducted on Days 1, 5, 7, and 9, at a rainfall rate of 70 mm hr-1, following a manure application on Day 0. Areas were subjected to either a repeated rainfall event (on Days 1, 5, and 9) or a single rainfall event (on Day 1 or Day 7). Composite runoff samples were collected for a half-hour runoff duration on the following days subsequent to the manure application. Additionally, a runoff sample was also taken to capture the initial 5 minutes of runoff from each plot. These samples are referred to as first flush samples and were collected to determine if the initial water quality of runoff may differ from the entire 30-minute runoff event. Soil samples were collected from the manure treated plots after each rainfall event at varied depths of 0-5cm, 5-15cm, and 15-25cm. Results point to differences in antibiotic mobility between manure application methods. Runoff from soils treated by surface broadcast application of manure released the largest quantity of antibiotics on Day 1 at approximately 2.1 g/ha. Over the ensuing rainfall events, all treatments continued to release antibiotics, with the runoff from surface broadcast plots containing the largest mass of all seven of antibiotics throughout the subsequent rainfall events at 2.7 g/ha, whereas the disk injection plots released only 0.64 g/ha. The vast majority of the soil samples contained no detectable levels of antibiotics, suggesting minimal leaching potential to groundwater. The only exception were the soil samples taken from within the disk-injection cuts, which contained detectable levels of sulfamethazine. This study demonstrates that the method of manure application affects the transport and accumulation of antibiotics in agricultural soils. The mass of antibiotics mobilized from plots treated with shallow disk injection of dairy manure was more than 4 times lower compared to the surface broadcast application method. These results suggest that current nutrient management recommendations, which promote the incorporation of manure into soil, are also likely applicable for mitigating veterinary antibiotic in surface runoff from manure-amended fields.

Vulnerability Of Coastal Ecosystems And Adaptation Book PDF
✏Book Title : Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation
✏Author : AndrĂ© Monaco
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2014-12-01
✏Pages : 336
✏ISBN : 9781119007753
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation Book Summary : The vulnerability of socio-ecosystem combines the probability of exposure to natural or anthropogenic pressure, sensitivity and resilience. This book presents a systemic view of the diversity of pressures and impacts produced by climate change and human actions. Erosion of biodiversity by changing ocean chemistry, the intensification of global change raises the problem of the adaptation of living resources.

Characterizing Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Prevalence And Persistence In The Marine Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Characterizing Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Prevalence and Persistence in the Marine Environment
✏Author : Megan Katherine May
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2019
✏Pages : 247
✏ISBN : OCLC:1086378654
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Characterizing Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Prevalence and Persistence in the Marine Environment Book Summary : Antibiotics are naturally occurring chemicals in bacteria that were recently discovered and utilized by humans. Despite a relatively short time of use, anthropogenic use of antibiotics has increased natural levels of antibiotic resistance, which has caused a looming antibiotic resistance crisis, where antibiotics may not work. Understanding resistance patterns is critical to allow for continued therapeutic use of antibiotics. While resistance is often thought of in hospitals, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from human activity are disposed of into nature where they are able to interact with naturally occurring antibiotics and resistance. In this dissertation, I examine the ocean as an understudied region of the environment for antibiotic resistance. The ocean represents an area of human activity with recreation and food consumption and it is an enormous region of the planet that is affected by both land and sea activities. In Chapter 2, I explore the policies that have contributed to the antibiotic resistance crisis. I offer explanations of market and political failures that contributed to the situation, areas for growth in terms of assessing scientific knowledge, and finally, recommendations for mitigating antibiotic resistance. In Chapters 3 and 4, I collected individual bacterial cultures from Cape Cod, MA beaches to assess the phenotypic response to antibiotic resistance. I show that 73% of Vibrio-like bacteria and 95% of heterotrophic bacteria (both groups operationally defined) are resistant to at least one antibiotic. These results indicate that antibiotic resistance is prevalent and persistent on beaches over both spatial and temporal scales. In Chapter 5, I used metagenomics to assess the abundance and types of resistance genes at coastal impacted Massachusetts sites. I found that, even in sites that seem distinct in terms of anthropogenic impact, prevalence of resistance remained the same. Finally, in Appendix A, I examined part of the TARA Ocean dataset for prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes across the world's ocean. Here, I found that there are distinctions between different ocean biomes based upon antibiotic, metal, and mobile genetic elements. This dissertation has increased the understanding of temporal and spatial dynamics of antibiotic resistance in the coastal and open ocean.

📒Combating Antimicrobial Resistance ✍ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Combating Antimicrobial Resistance Book PDF
✏Book Title : Combating Antimicrobial Resistance
✏Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
✏Publisher : National Academies Press
✏Release Date : 2018-01-08
✏Pages : 172
✏ISBN : 9780309466523
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Combating Antimicrobial Resistance Book Summary : As of 2017, the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance continues unabated around the world, leaving devastating health and economic outcomes in its wake. Those consequences will multiply if collaborative global action is not taken to address the spread of resistance. Major drivers of antimicrobial resistance in humans have been accelerated by inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in health care practices; the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in livestock; and the promulgation of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. To explore the issue of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum of Microbial Threats planned a public workshop. Participants explored issues of antimicrobial resistance through the lens of One Health, which is a collaborative approach of multiple disciplines - working locally, nationally, and globally - for strengthening systems to counter infectious diseases and related issues that threaten human, animal, and environmental health, with an end point of improving global health and achieving gains in development. They also discussed immediate and short-term actions and research needs that will have the greatest effect on reducing antimicrobial resistance, while taking into account the complexities of bridging different sectors and disciplines to address this global threat. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Antibiotic Resistance In The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment
✏Author : CĂ©lia M. Manaia
✏Publisher : Springer Nature
✏Release Date :
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 9783030550653
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment Book Summary :

📒Antibiotic Materials In Healthcare ✍ Varaprasad Kokkarachedu

Antibiotic Materials In Healthcare Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotic Materials in Healthcare
✏Author : Varaprasad Kokkarachedu
✏Publisher : Academic Press
✏Release Date : 2020-05-22
✏Pages : 346
✏ISBN : 9780128225363
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotic Materials in Healthcare Book Summary : Antibiotic Materials in Healthcare provides significant information on antibiotic related issues, accurate solutions, and recent investigative information for health-related applications. In addition, the book addresses the design and development of antibiotics with advanced (physical, chemical and biological) properties, an analysis of materials, in vivo and in vitro applications, and their biomedical applications for healthcare. Provides information on all aspects of antibiotic related issues Offers a balanced synthesis of basic and clinical science for each individual case, presenting clinical courses and detailed microbiological information for each infection Describes the prevalence and incidence of global issues and current therapeutic approaches

Assessing The Risk Of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission From The Environment To Humans Non Direct Proportionality Between Abundance And Risk Book PDF
✏Book Title : Assessing the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission from the Environment to Humans Non Direct Proportionality Between Abundance and Risk
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1052064391
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Assessing the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission from the Environment to Humans Non Direct Proportionality Between Abundance and Risk Book Summary : Abstract : The past decade has witnessed a burst of study regarding antibiotic resistance in the environment, mainly in areas under anthropogenic influence. Therefore, impacts of the contaminant resistome, that is, those related to human activities, are now recognized. However, a key issue refers to the risk of transmission of resistance to humans, for which a quantitative model is urgently needed. This opinion paper makes an overview of some risk-determinant variables and raises questions regarding research needs. A major conclusion is that the risks of transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans must be managed under the precautionary principle, because it may be too late to act if we wait until we have concrete risk values. Trends: The absence of a significant overlap of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARG) between the human microbiome and potential environmental sources should not be interpreted as an indication of risk absence. Hence, screening of ARG pools cannot be used as an accurate measure of the risk for transmission to humans. The risks of transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans must be assessed based on ARB (not only on ARG) that are able to colonize and proliferate in the human body. The risk is a function of their fitness in the human body and the presence of resistance and virulence genes. Even at extremely low abundance in environmental sources, ARB may represent a high risk for human health. The limits of quantification of methods commonly used to screen for ARG in environmental samples may be too high to allow reliable risk assessments.

Textbook Of Environmental Medicine Book PDF
✏Book Title : Textbook of Environmental Medicine
✏Author : Velu Nair
✏Publisher : Wolters kluwer india Pvt Ltd
✏Release Date : 2014-01-01
✏Pages : 512
✏ISBN : 9789351292470
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Textbook of Environmental Medicine Book Summary : A comprehensive text book by Wolters Kluwer Lippincott covering all key features that are very helpful for the medical students.

Antimicrobial Resistance In Wastewater Treatment Processes Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes
✏Author : Patricia L. Keen
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2017-12-18
✏Pages : 392
✏ISBN : 9781119192435
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes Book Summary : Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes. Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes: Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.

Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance In The Environment Have Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes Always Been Out There  Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment Have antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes always been out there
✏Author : Carlos F. Am{uFFFD}bile-Cuevas
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2016
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : 1317394097
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment Have antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes always been out there Book Summary :

📒Antibiotic Resistance ✍ Derek J. Chadwick

Antibiotic Resistance Book PDF
✏Book Title : Antibiotic Resistance
✏Author : Derek J. Chadwick
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2008-04-30
✏Pages : 260
✏ISBN : 9780470515365
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Antibiotic Resistance Book Summary : Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, Selection and Spread Chairman: Stuart B. Levy, 1997 Over the last 50 years, the rapid increase in the use of antibiotics, not only in people, but also in animal husbandry and agriculture, has delivered a selection unprecedented in the history of evolution. Consequently, society is facing one of its gravest public health problems-the emergence of infectious bacteria with resistance to many, and in some cases all, available antibiotics. This book brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to discuss this problem. It begins by examining the origins of resistance and goes on to look at how the use of antibiotics in human medicine and farming/agriculture has selected for resistant bacteria. Separate chapters describe the evolution of resistance determinants and how these are spread both within and between bacterial species. Finally, the book contains discussions on strategies for countering the threat of antibiotic resistance. A major re-thinking of our approach to the treatment of infectious diseases is proposed-that antibiotic resistance should be seen as a problem created by the disruption of normal microbial ecology. To restore efficacy to earlier antibiotics, and to maintain the success of new antibiotics that are introduced, we need to use these drugs in a way that ensures an ecological balance that favours the predominance of susceptible bacteria.

At The Nexus Of Antibiotics And Metals The Impact Of Cu And Zn On Antibiotic Activity And Resistance Book PDF
✏Book Title : At the Nexus of Antibiotics and Metals The Impact of Cu and Zn on Antibiotic Activity and Resistance
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051992153
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏At the Nexus of Antibiotics and Metals The Impact of Cu and Zn on Antibiotic Activity and Resistance Book Summary : Abstract : Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Many classes of antibiotics also form complexes with metal cations, including Cu and Zn, and this can hinder (or enhance) antibiotic activity. This review highlights the ways in which Cu/Zn influence antibiotic resistance development and antibiotic activity, and in so doing impact in vivo antibiotic efficacy. Trends: The environment can influence both antibiotic activity and bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, and understanding the impact of environmental factors is key to predicting in vivo antibiotic efficacy. Metal cations are common environmental stressors that perturb bacteria, activating metal-protective stress responses and growth states that also protect against and provide resistance to antibiotics. Metal (Cu and Zn) and antibiotic resistance genes co-occur in animal isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This reflects the demonstrated genetic linkage of the resistance genes and highlights the potential for metals to drive antibiotic resistance development in human pathogens. Cu and Zn are antimicrobials in their own right, and their use in combination with or complexed to certain antibiotics can enhance antibiotic efficacy.

Water And Sanitation Related Diseases And The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment
✏Author : Janine M. H. Selendy
✏Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
✏Release Date : 2011-10-07
✏Pages : 528
✏ISBN : 1118148606
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment Book Summary : Written by authorities from various related specialties, this bookpresents the most complete treatment possible of the conditionsresponsible for water- and sanitation-related diseases, thepathogens and their biology, morbidity and mortality resulting fromlack of safe water and sanitation, distribution of these diseases,and the conditions that must be met to reduce or eradicate them.Preventive measures and solutions are presented throughout. Thisbook is an essential resource for all graduate students,postdoctoral scholars, and professionals in infectious disease,public health and medicine, chemical and environmental engineering,and international affairs. Key features: Provides a comprehensive understanding of the interconnectionamong many factors related to water-related diseases, sanitationand hygiene Brings together experts from various specialties to addresseach area covered and to assist in bringing about the understandingof those interconnections Provides examples of successful interventions with knowledgeabout how they were brought about so that information can be use toreplicate the initiative in full or in part Provides an appreciation of the concerns and solutionsaddressed from an international perspective with high and lowtechnological solutions Provides insight into the international dimension of theseconcerns and how they can be best addressed Four hours of accompanying multimedia DVD on two discs Learn more about this title and share information with colleaguesand friends using this three-pageflier: http://www.solutions-site.org/dvd/insert.pdf

Processes In The Yangtze River System Book PDF
✏Book Title : Processes in the Yangtze River System
✏Author : Stephan KĂŒppers
✏Publisher : Forschungszentrum JĂŒlich
✏Release Date : 2011
✏Pages : 83
✏ISBN : 9783893367443
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Processes in the Yangtze River System Book Summary :

Analysis Of Antibiotic Multi Resistant Bacteria And Resistance Genes In The Effluent Of An Intensive Shrimp Farm Long An Vietnam  Book PDF
✏Book Title : Analysis of Antibiotic Multi resistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes in the Effluent of an Intensive Shrimp Farm Long An Vietnam
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2018
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1051419655
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Analysis of Antibiotic Multi resistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes in the Effluent of an Intensive Shrimp Farm Long An Vietnam Book Summary : Abstract: In Vietnam, intensive shrimp farms heavily rely on a wide variety of antibiotics (ABs) to treat animals or prevent disease outbreak. Potential for the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria is high, with the concomitant contamination of adjacent natural aquatic habitats used for irrigation and drinking water, impairing in turn human health system. In the present study, quantification of AB multi-resistant bacteria was carried out in water and sediment samples from effluent channels connecting a shrimp farming area to the Vam Co River (Long An Province, Vietnam). Bacterial strains, e.g. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aeromonas hydrophila, showing multi-resistance traits were isolated. Molecular biology analysis showed that these strains possessed from four to seven different AB resistance genes (ARGs) (e.g. sul 1, sul 2, qnr A, erm B, tet A, aac(6)lb, dfr A1, dfr 12, dfr A5), conferring multidrug resistance capacity. Sequencing of plasmids present within these multi-resistant strains led to the identification of a total of forty-one resistance genes, targeting nine AB groups. qPCR analysis on the sul 2 gene revealed the presence of high copy numbers in the effluent channel connecting to the Vam Co River. The results of the present study clearly indicated that multi-resistant bacteria present in intensive shrimp cultures may disseminate in the natural environment. This study offered a first insight in the impact of plasmid-born ARGs and the related pathogenic bacteria that could emerged due to inappropriate antibiotic utilization in South Vietnam. Graphical abstract: Highlights: Multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria were isolated from shrimp farming effluents. Isolated strains possessed four to seven resistance genes on plasmids. Forty-one plasmid-borne resistance genes were detected. High numbers of sul 2 gene copies were measured in the adjacent natural water course. Antibiotic promotes the dispersion of multi-resistant bacteria in the environment.

Rainfall Increases The Abundance Of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Within A Riverine Microbial Community Book PDF
✏Book Title : Rainfall Increases the Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Within a Riverine Microbial Community
✏Author :
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2017
✏Pages :
✏ISBN : OCLC:1052049530
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Rainfall Increases the Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Within a Riverine Microbial Community Book Summary : Abstract: Infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria are among the major threats for human health. Studies elucidating the role of the environment in their spread are still in their infancy, it, however, seems that different environments might function as a long-term reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that reside within their microbial communities. An increasing number of studies target the presence and the persistence of ARGs in waters and soils that are exposed to human activities; they, however, rarely consider the spatial/temporal variability that predominate in these environments. Here we evaluated the effect of a moderate rain event (4mm rain h −1 ) on the abundance and distribution of ARGs ( tet A, erm B, bla CTXM, sul II, and qnr S), by comparing measurements of gene abundances during the rainfall to the yearly average, in the waters of a large subalpine river. ARG abundances, which all increased during the rain event, were then correlated to several microbiological, physical and chemical variables, in order to establish their potential origin. Increments in ARG abundances during rainfall (total ARGs: 24 fold) was concomitant to an increase in total phosphorous, N-NH4, and microbial aggregates. Our results show a strong influence of a moderate rainfall on the abundances of ARGs, and suggest the catchment as their source. The impact of moderate rainfalls in areas exposed to anthropic activities should then be considered in modelling and management of ARG dynamics. Graphical abstract: Highlights: The abundances of antibiotic resistance genes in a river increase during a rain event. Antibiotic resistance genes during the rain event are higher than the yearly average. Chemical parameters indicate that the input derives from the surrounding soils. Monitoring of antibiotic resistance genes should consider rain events. Abstract : Moderate rainfalls influence the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in rivers, imposing the consideration of these events while monitoring ARGs in aquatic environments.

Pharmaceuticals In The Environment Book PDF
✏Book Title : Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
✏Author : Klaus KĂŒmmerer
✏Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
✏Release Date : 2013-03-09
✏Pages : 527
✏ISBN : 9783662092590
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Book Summary : Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.

Tetracycline Resistance Genes In Aquaculture Environments Book PDF
✏Book Title : Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Aquaculture Environments
✏Author : Erin E. Seyfried
✏Publisher :
✏Release Date : 2007
✏Pages : 214
✏ISBN : WISC:89095878351
✏Available Language : English, Spanish, And French

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✏Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Aquaculture Environments Book Summary :