Abraham Lincoln S Cyphering Book And Ten Other Extraordinary Cyphering Books
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📒Abraham Lincoln S Cyphering Book And Ten Other Extraordinary Cyphering Books ✍ Nerida F. Ellerton
✏Abraham Lincoln s Cyphering Book and Ten other Extraordinary Cyphering Books Book Summary : This well-illustrated book provides strong qualitative and comparative support for the main arguments developed by Nerida Ellerton and Ken Clements in their groundbreaking Rewriting this History of School Mathematics in North America 1607–1861: The Central Role of Cyphering Books. Eleven extraordinary handwritten school mathematics manuscripts are carefully analyzed—six were prepared entirely in Great Britain, four entirely in North America, and 1 partly in Great Britain and partly in North America. The earliest of the 11 cyphering books was prepared around 1630, and the latest in 1835. Seven of the manuscripts were arithmetic cyphering books; three were navigation cyphering books, and one was a mensuration/surveying manuscript. One of the cyphering books examined in this book was prepared, over the period 1819–1826, by a young Abraham Lincoln, when he was attending small one-teacher schools in remote Spencer County, Indiana. Chapter 6 in this book provides the first detailed analysis of young Abraham’s cyphering book—which is easily the oldest surviving Lincoln manuscript. Another cyphering book, this one prepared by William Beattie in 1835, could have been prepared as a special gift for the King of England. The analyses make clear the extent of the control which the cyphering tradition had over school mathematics in North America and Great Britain between 1630 and 1840. In their final chapter Ellerton and Clements identify six lessons from their research into the cyphering tradition which relate to present-day circumstances surrounding school mathematics. These lessons are concerned with sharp differences between intended, implemented and attained curricula, the remarkable value that many students placed upon their cyphering books, the ethnomathematical circumstances which surrounded the preparations of the extraordinary cyphering books, and qualitative differences between British and North American school mathematics.
📒Republic Of Numbers ✍ David Lindsay Roberts
✏Republic of Numbers Book Summary : Republic of Numbers will appeal to anyone who is interested in learning how mathematics has intertwined with American history.
✏Samuel Pepys Isaac Newton James Hodgson and the Beginnings of Secondary School Mathematics Book Summary : This book tells one of the greatest stories in the history of school mathematics. Two of the names in the title—Samuel Pepys and Isaac Newton—need no introduction, and this book draws attention to their special contributions to the history of school mathematics. According to Ellerton and Clements, during the last quarter of the seventeenth century Pepys and Newton were key players in defining what school mathematics beyond arithmetic and elementary geometry might look like. The scene at which most of the action occurred was Christ’s Hospital, which was a school, ostensibly for the poor, in central London. The Royal Mathematical School (RMS) was established at Christ’s Hospital in 1673. It was the less well-known James Hodgson, a fine mathematician and RMS master between 1709 and 1755, who demonstrated that topics such as logarithms, plane and spherical trigonometry, and the application of these to navigation, might systematically and successfully be taught to 12- to 16-year-old school children. From a wider history-of-school-education perspective, this book tells how the world’s first secondary-school mathematics program was created and how, slowly but surely, what was being achieved at RMS began to influence school mathematics in other parts of Great Britain, Europe, and America. The book has been written from the perspective of the history of school mathematics. Ellerton and Clements’s analyses of pertinent literature and of archival data, and their interpretations of those analyses, have led them to conclude that RMS was the first major school in the world to teach mathematics-beyond-arithmetic, on a systematic basis, to students aged between 12 and 16. Throughout the book, Ellerton and Clements examine issues through the lens of a lag-time theoretical perspective. From a historiographical perspective, this book emphasizes how the history of RMS can be portrayed in very different ways, depending on the vantage point from which the history is written. The authors write from the vantage point of international developments in school mathematics education and, therefore, their history of RMS differs from all other histories of RMS, most of which were written from the perspective of the history of Christ’s Hospital.
✏Thomas Jefferson and his Decimals 1775 1810 Neglected Years in the History of U S School Mathematics Book Summary : This well-illustrated book, by two established historians of school mathematics, documents Thomas Jefferson’s quest, after 1775, to introduce a form of decimal currency to the fledgling United States of America. The book describes a remarkable study showing how the United States’ decision to adopt a fully decimalized, carefully conceived national currency ultimately had a profound effect on U.S. school mathematics curricula. The book shows, by analyzing a large set of arithmetic textbooks and an even larger set of handwritten cyphering books, that although most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century authors of arithmetic textbooks included sections on vulgar and decimal fractions, most school students who prepared cyphering books did not study either vulgar or decimal fractions. In other words, author-intended school arithmetic curricula were not matched by teacher-implemented school arithmetic curricula. Amazingly, that state of affairs continued even after the U.S. Mint began minting dollars, cents and dimes in the 1790s. In U.S. schools between 1775 and 1810 it was often the case that Federal money was studied but decimal fractions were not. That gradually changed during the first century of the formal existence of the United States of America. By contrast, Chapter 6 reports a comparative analysis of data showing that in Great Britain only a minority of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century school students studied decimal fractions. Clements and Ellerton argue that Jefferson’s success in establishing a system of decimalized Federal money had educationally significant effects on implemented school arithmetic curricula in the United States of America. The lens through which Clements and Ellerton have analyzed their large data sets has been the lag-time theoretical position which they have developed. That theory posits that the time between when an important mathematical “discovery” is made (or a concept is “created”) and when that discovery (or concept) becomes an important part of school mathematics is dependent on mathematical, social, political and economic factors. Thus, lag time varies from region to region, and from nation to nation. Clements and Ellerton are the first to identify the years after 1775 as the dawn of a new day in U.S. school mathematics—traditionally, historians have argued that nothing in U.S. school mathematics was worthy of serious study until the 1820s. This book emphasizes the importance of the acceptance of decimal currency so far as school mathematics is concerned. It also draws attention to the consequences for school mathematics of the conscious decision of the U.S. Congress not to proceed with Thomas Jefferson’s grand scheme for a system of decimalized weights and measures.
📒Lincoln In The Telegraph Office Abridged Annotated ✍ David Homer Bates
✏Lincoln in the Telegraph Office Abridged Annotated Book Summary : Given the amount of time that Abraham Lincoln spent in the telegraph office of the War Department next door to the White House, it is unfortunate that there are no photos of him there. But we have this fascinating account of his time there. During times of crisis, tension, and victory, Lincoln spent hours and hours in the company of his "boys" in that office. There are many Lincoln anecdotes you will not read anywhere else and they help to complete a view of this extraordinary president. David Bates was one of the boys. From 1861-1866 he was the manager of the War Department telegraph office and a cipher (code) operator. In this intimate and interesting book, first published in 1907, Bates relates what it was like working alongside Abraham Lincoln and Edwin Stanton (Secretary of War). He also discusses the codes and methods used during the Civil War to transmit important messages. One of the unsung heroes of the American Civil War was Major Thomas Eckert, who was in charge of all military telegraphic operations. Greatly trusted by both Lincoln and War Secretary Stanton, Eckert was employed in many very important actions during the war. For the first time, this long-out-of-print book is available as an affordable, well-formatted book for e-readers and smartphones. Be sure to LOOK INSIDE or download a sample.
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📒The Lincoln Centenary In Literature ✍ William Abbatt
✏The Lincoln Centenary in Literature Book Summary :
✏The New York Times Book Review Book Summary :
✏The Publishers Weekly Book Summary :